Space Weather Program, and the 2006 Committee on an Assessment of Balance in NASA’s Science Programs.

RAYMOND S. BRADLEY is a University Distinguished Professor of Geosciences and director of the Climate Systems Research Center at the University of Massachusetts. Dr. Bradley’s research interests are in climatology and paleoclimatology, with a particular focus on the postglacial period (the past 12,000 years). Dr. Bradley has written or edited 12 books on these subjects, including Paleoclimatology: Reconstructing Climates of the Quaternary and Climate Change and Society (with N.E. Law). He has been an advisor to various government and international agencies, including those in the United States, Switzerland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, and in particular for NSF, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminiatration (NOAA), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and the U.S.-Russia Working Group on Environmental Protection, and the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program, Stockholm, Sweden. He is a fellow of the AGU, the Arctic Institute of North America, and the AAAS. He received an honorary doctorate from Lancaster University, England, for his contributions to paleoclimatology. He was also awarded the Oeschger Medal of the European Geosciences Union. Dr. Bradley earned his Ph.D. at the University of Colorado, Boulder. He served previously on the NRC’s Panel on Climate Variability on Decade-to-Century Time Scales, the Grasslands Study Panel, and the Committee on Monitoring and Trend Assessment in Acid Deposition.

PETER FOUKAL is the president of Heliophysics, Inc., and the founder and past-president of Cambridge Research and Instrumentation, Inc., a high-tech firm specializing in electro-optics. His experience includes research and teaching positions at the California Institute of Technology and Harvard University and a position as vice president of AER, Inc. He was awarded a NATO senior fellowship at Nice Observatory, France, and has served as a member or as chair of numerous panels and advisory boards of NSF and NASA. He is past-president of Division II of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), a past member of the editorial board of Solar Physics Journal, and at present a member of the Corporation of Wheelock College. Besides the IAU, his professional affiliations include memberships in the American Astronomical Society and the AGU. He is author or co-author of more than 120 publications in scientific journals and author of the widely used text Solar Astrophysics. Dr. Foukal earned his Ph.D. in astrophysics from Manchester University, United Kingdom. His previous NRC experience includes serving on the Board of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate’s Committee on Solar and Terrestrial Research and the Associateship and Fellowship Programs Advisory Committee’s Panel on Space Sciences.

JOANNA D. HAIGH is professor and head of the Department of Atmospheric Physics at Imperial College, London. Prior to joining Imperial College as a lecturer, she was a research associate at Oxford University. Dr. Haigh’s research interests are in the area of radiative transfer in the atmosphere, climate modeling, radiative forcing of climate change, and the influence of solar irradiance variability on climate. She has been vice president of the Royal Meteorological Society, editor of Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, and a lead author of the IPCC Third Assessment, and she has acted on many U.K. and international panels. Currently she is the U.K. representative to the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, editor of the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, and a member of the Royal Society’s Climate Change Advisory Group. She is a fellow of the Institute of Physics and of the Royal Meteorological Society, and she has received the 2004 Charles Chree Medal of the Institute of Physics and the 2010 Adrian Gill Prize of the Royal Meteorological Society for her work on solar influences on climate. She earned her D.Phil. from the University of Oxford.

ISAAC M. HELD is a senior research scientist at NOAA’s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, where he has spent most of his career. He is a lecturer with the rank of professor at Princeton University in its Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Program and is an associate faculty member in Princeton’s Applied and Computational Mathematics Program and in the Princeton Environmental Institute. Dr.

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