Held’s research focuses on climate dynamics and climate modeling, with particular interests in the planetary-scale structure of the atmospheric circulation, climate sensitivity, and various aspects of geophysical turbulence. He is a fellow of the American Meteorological Society and the AGU and a member of the NAS. Among other awards he has received are two Presidential Rank Awards for Government Service and the Carl Gustav Rossby Medal, the highest award of the American Meteorological Society. Dr. Held received his Ph.D. in atmospheric and oceanic sciences from Princeton University. He is currently a member of the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, and his prior NRC service includes the Committee on Stabilization Targets for Atmospheric Greenhouse Gas Concentrations.

GERALD A. MEEHL is a senior scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. His research interests include studying the interactions between El Niño/Southern Oscillation and the monsoons of Asia; identifying possible effects on global climate of changing anthropogenic forcings, such as carbon dioxide, as well as natural forcings, such as solar variability; and quantifying possible future changes of weather and climate extremes in a warmer climate. He was contributing author, lead author, and twice a coordinating lead author for the first four IPCC climate change assessment reports. He is currently a lead author on the near-term climate change chapter for the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. He was a recipient of the Jule G. Charney Award of the American Meteorological Society. Dr. Meehl is an associate editor for the Journal of Climate, a fellow of the American Meteorological Society, and a visiting senior fellow at the University of Hawaii Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research. Dr. Meehl earned his Ph.D. in climate dynamics from the University of Colorado. He serves as co-chair of the Community Climate System Model Climate Change Working Group and as co-chair of the World Climate Research Programme Working Group on Coupled Models. He is chair of the NRC’s Climate Research Committee, and he previously served on the NRC’s Panel on Climate Observing Systems Status.

LARRY J. PAXTON is a member of the principal professional staff and head of the Geospace and Earth Science Group at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Dr. Paxton is the co-principal investigator for the Global Ultraviolet Imager on the NASA Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics mission and the principal investigator on the Defense Meteorological Satellites Program’s Special Sensor Ultraviolet Spectrographic Imager. His research focuses on the atmospheres and the ionospheres of the terrestrial planets, in particular the aeronomy of Earth’s upper atmosphere and the role of solar-cycle and anthropogenic change in creating variability in the dynamics, energetics, and composition of the upper atmosphere. He has been involved in more than a dozen satellite, space shuttle, International Space Station, and sounding rocket experiments. He is a member of the International Academy of Astronautics. Dr. Paxton has published more than 230 papers on planetary and space science, instruments, remote sensing techniques, knowledge-based decision systems, and space mission design. He has served on several NASA and NSF committees, panels, and working groups and currently serves on the NASA Heliophysics Roadmap panel. He is past chair of the International Academy of Astronautics Commission 4 on Space Systems Utilization and Operations. He earned his Ph.D. in astrophysical, planetary, and atmospheric sciences from the University of Colorado, Boulder. Dr. Paxton currently serves as a member of the NRC’s Panel on Atmosphere-Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Interactions of the Committee on a Decadal Strategy for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics).

PETER PILEWSKIE is a professor in the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences at the University of Colorado, Boulder, with a joint appointment in the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP). He is the director of the joint LASP and NASA Goddard Sun Climate Research Center. Dr. Pilewskie is the principal investigator for the NOAA and NASA Joint Polar Satellite System Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor and a co-investigator on the NASA Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment. His research interests include solar spectral variability and its effects on terrestrial climate; quantifying the Earth-atmosphere radiative energy budget; surface, airborne, and satellite remote sensing



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