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E Acronyms and Terms ACR Anomalous Cosmic Ray ACRIM Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor AMO Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research CME Coronal mass ejection cosmic ray Highly energetic atomic nucleus that travels through space at nearly the speed of light Dalton Minima A period of low solar activity lasting from 1790 to 1830 and named after John Dalton ENSO El Niño-Southern Oscillation EPP Energizing precipitating particle Forcing An externally imposed perturbation in the radiative energy budget of Earth’s climate system. Also called radiative forcing. GCM Global climate model GCR Galactic cosmic ray Hadley cell Atmospheric circulation with rising motion near the equator, poleward flow, and sinking motion in the subtropics Little Ice Age A cooling period from 1550 to 1850 Maunder Minimum A period of low solar activity lasting from 1645 to 1715 and named after Edward W. Maunder Milankovitch cycle Long-term changes in Earth’s orbit that in turn affect its climate over long periods of time NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NRC National Research Council NSF National Science Foundation Photosphere Visible surface of the Sun PREMOS Precision Monitoring Sensor experiment onboard the PICARD French microsatellite mission QBO Quasi-biennial oscillation 57
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SBUV Solar backscatter ultraviolet SEP Solar energetic particle SIM Spectral Irradiance Monitor SOLSTICE Solar Stellar Intercomparison Experiment SORCE Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment SPE Solar proton event Spörer minimum A period of low solar activity lasting from 1460 to 1550 and named after Gustav Spörer SSI Solar spectral irradiance SST Sea surface temperature TIM Total Irradiance Monitor TSI Total solar irradiance 58