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Index A Abalone divers, 64, 338 Acetylcholine (ACh) and behavior, 102-104, 108, 117 and neurodegenerative disease, 209- 210, 211, 212-215, 216 Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), 103, 106 DFP and, 111, 127 and neurodegenerative disease, 209- 211, 213 Acetylcoenzyme A, 104 Acid rain, 409 Acrylamide, 78, 236, 270, 276 Active avoidance, 130 Additions Test, 368, 369, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377, 388 Affective behavior, 77, 81, 160, 175 AF64A, 124, 128, 133, 134 Age and cholinergic system, 115-118, 119 lead and, 258-259 in NCTB studies, 83, 302 and neurochemical changes, 101-102, 110-111, 281 and neurodegenerative disease, 11, 212, 227, 276, 282 organophosphates and, 184 in Swedish performance battery, 375, 381 Agricultural chemicals, 359 Air pollution, 293 419 Alcohol, 63 fetal exposure, 199 in Microtox battery, 60 nervous system damage, 176, 276 in Swedish performance battery, 360, 377-378, 380 tolerance development, 164, 167 Aliphatic hydrocarbons, 236 Alkanes, 78 Aluminum and Alzheimer's disease, 16, 236, 270- 271 neurological damage, 15, 226, 228- 229, 235-236 Alzheimer's disease, 13, 15, 32, 227 aluminum and, 16, 236, 270-271 in behavioral studies, 152-153, 154, 406, 407 chemicals and, 281 cholinergic system and, 124-125, 210- 212, 213, 214-215 lead and, 283 neuronal degeneration, 219, 220 treatment, 133, 209, 210, 269 American Conference of Govemmental Industrial Hygienists, 79, 399 American Psychological Association, 365 Ames test, 70 Amitraz, 353, 355-356 Amphetamine, 130, 131, 150-151, 350 Amygdala, 276

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420 Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 35, 283 ALS/P-D (western Pacific amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism-dementia complex), 12-16, 26, 27, 35-36 cycads and, 17, 18, 21, 22, 27-32, 34, 280-281, 409 ANADe (O-acetyl-N-animodeanol), 213 Anemia, 252, 253 Anesthetic gases, 78, 359, 360 Anger, W. Kent, 90, 314 Animal models, 184-188, 193, 194, 271- 272 Alzheimer's disease, 213 barbiturate exposure, 195, 196 behavioral effects, 129-134, 152 brain implants, 220-221, 222 cholinergic system, 101, 102, 118, 120, 210, 212 dementia, 124-126, 127, 130, 134 extrapolation to humans, 7, 115, 129, 187, 199, 239, 406, 410 lead exposure, 139, 141, 146, 257, 258, 399, 407 mercury exposure, 408 nerve growth, 216 parkinsonism, 279-280, 406 repeated acquisition procedures, 148- 155 solvent exposure, 160, 161-162, 166- 174, 177, 178-179 startle response, 201 ANOVAs, 111, 114, 115, 117, 302 Anticholinesterases (antiChE) and behavior, 103, 104, 106, 210 and neurodegenerative disease, 118, 209, 211, 269 tolerance development, 103, 128, 131- 132, 210 Antihypertensive drugs, 274 Antimitotics, 278 Antipsychotic drugs, 275 Apparatus-driven research, 148 AP7, 33-34 Aromatic hydrocarbons, 236 Asian Conference on Behavioral Toxicology and Clinical Psychology, 331 Associative conditioning, 196-199 Ataxia, 80, 82 Attention impairment, 160 INDEX Australia, 338-339, 341 aborigines, 18-19, 30 cycadism in, 27 lead study, 248 Autocannibalism, 213-214, 215 Autografts, 221 Auyu people, 14, 27-28, 30 Avoidance behavior, 129-130, 131, 134, 178 Axonal degeneration, 273, 274, 275-276, 278, 280 B Bailey, Elaine L., 185 Bangladesh, 12, 24 Banks, Joseph, 19-20 Barbiturates, 168, 194-196 Bayley Infant Behavioral Record, 248 Bayley Mental Development Index, 247- 248 Bayley Psychomotor Development Index, 247-248 Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 239, 403, 408 Behavior, 1-3, 64, 119, 125 age and, 102 animal models, 118, 129-134 brain implants and, 220-222 chemical effects on, 76, 77, 79, 81, 91, 200209 cholinergic system and, 102-104, 210, 214-215, 218 and definition of toxicity, 401-403 environmental effects on, 347-348, 350-353 lead effects on, 247-250 measurement of, 4-5, 6-7, 185 neurotransmitters and, 138, 154 performance tests, 149-150, 161, 302- 304, 359-390 Behavioral pharmacology, 137, 141, 152, 397-399 Bell, E. A., 23 Bender Gestalt Test, 230, 238 Benton Visual Retention Test, 40, 47, 230, 302, 303, 320, 326, 328 Benzene exposure, China, 287, 288 Betz cells, 24, 26 BHMH (butylazo-2-hydroxy-5- methylhexane), 169

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INDEX Bhopal, India, 324, 341 Biochemical markers, 307-308 lead exposure, 254-255 Blacks, 260 Block Design Test, 41 Blood-brain barrier, 102, 118, 277 Blood lead concentration, 229, 230, 231, 244, 260, 291, 407 and intellectual performance, 249, 250-253, 257, 294 maternal, 254-255 and spontaneous abortion, 247 Blood pressure, lead and, 254, 258-259 BMAA (beta-N-methylamino-~-alanine), 23-24, 25-27, 32-35 BOAA (beta-N-oxalylamino-~-alanine), 23, 24, 25, 33, 34, 274, 276 Bolla-Wilson and Bleecker battery, 44, 45 Bone lead, 254, 255, 263, 283 Bourdon-Wiersma Vigilance Test, 40, 326, 327, 328 Brain age and, 110, 118 chemicals and, 102 damage, 41, 93, 218-219 nerve growth, 216 neurocircuitry, 200-201 solvent effects, 174-175, 176 tissue implants, 219-222, 279-280 Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale, 234 Chelation, 263 British Ability Scales, 230, 249 Chemicals British National Adult Reading Test, 41 British Psychological Association, 365 Bulgaria, 317 Butyl acetate, 236 C Caffeine, 193 Calcium, 255 deficiency, 15-16 homeostasis, 253, 254, 259, 263 California, 8 Calories, 283 Cancer, 281, 395, 396-397, 403 Carbaryl, 78, 152 Carbon disulfide, 40, 78, 80, 268-269, 270, 338 Chinese studies, 289-291, 304 neurological effects, 168, 171-174, 175, 176, 236, 237, 282 421 Carbon monoxide, 60, 78 Carbon tetrachloride, 78 Case control studies, 237 Cassava, 268 Cassitto, Maria G., 315 Catecholamine, 178, 274, 308 Cattle, cycadism in, 27 Caudal nerve, 173, 174 Cavanagh, J. B., 173 Celebes, 19 Centers for Disease Control, 230, 261 Central nervous system, 3, 4, 41, 124- 125, 147, 227-228, 312, 401 age and, 102 conditioned learning, 200-201 development of, 192, 216-217, 218- 219 lathyrism, 24 lead effects, 230, 231 mercury effects, 232-233 solvent effects, 160-161, 164, 167, 169, 175, 236-237 test batteries, 80, 82, 91, 359, 360 Cerebellum, 200 Cerebral cortex, 110, 113, 114, 116, 117, 276 Cerebral palsy, 408 Chamorros, 13, 14, 15, 21, 22, 23, 30, 31- 32 animal testing, 184, 186 in China, 287-288 and dementia, 212 in India, 323 neurobehavioral effects, 74, 75-78, 80-83, 101-102, 206-209, 226-240, 273-278, 312-313 neurotoxicity criteria, 268-272, 278- 284 performance test assessment, 359-360 regulation of, 79, 222, 403 Chemomyelotomy, 198 Chemotherapy, 397 Children, 239, 410 eyelid conditioning, 200 lead exposure, 138, 146, 229-231, 243, 245-246, 247-257, 260, 262-263, 292-293, 294, 295, 308, 403-404, 407 mercury exposure, 233, 408

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422 PCB exposure, 234-235 solvent exposure, 167 China, 12 Academy of Preventive Medicine, 297 carbon disulfide, 289-291 lead exposure, 291-293 magnetic field exposure, 296-297 toxicity testing, 287-289, 297, 298-300, 304-310, 314, 337, 341 video terminal operation, 293-296 Chlordane, 186 Chlordimeform, 353-356 Chloroform, 78 Choice Reaction Time, 88 in Swedish performance battery, 366, 368, 369, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377- 378, 380, 385, 387 Choline, 212-215 Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), 104, 106,109,110,111,112,114,115, 118-119, 211, 213, 216 Cholinergic system, 101, 124-125, 128, 184-185 and behavior, 102-104, 200-201 DFP and, 104-119 false transmitters, 212-216 in neurodegenerative disease, 209- 212, 218, 219, 227, 274 Cholinesterase (ChE) in Alzheimer's disease, 211 and behavior, 103-104 DFP and, 104-110, 111, 112, 113, 115, 117-119 Chromaffin cells, 221 Chromium oxide, 328 Chronic toxic encephalopathy, 174-179 Ciguatera, 268 Clean Air Act (1970), 8, 401 Climatic conditions, 361 Clinical Interview Schedule, 89 Clostridium bacilli, 268 Cognitive componential models, 93-95, 96 Cognitive Failures Questionnaire, 89 Cognitive function, 3, 6-7 animal models, 124, 125, 133-134, 239 brain implants and, 220-221 chemical effects, 77, 81 cholinergic system and, 210, 215 lead effects, 231, 283 nervous system development and, 217 PCB and, 235 INDEX performance tests, 60, 64, 74, 80, 87, 90, 91, 92-93, 97, 238, 362 solvent effects, 175, 177, 178, 187 taxonomy, 70-71 Cohen, Stanley, 217 Collaborative Behavioral Teratology Study, 408-409 Collaborative Perinatal Project, 195 Color Word Vigilance Test, 88 in Swedish performance battery, 369, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377, 378, 379, 385, 387 Committee on Environmental Hazards, 260 Communication, 8-9, 335 Complex Reaction Time, 367, 368 Computerized testing, 5, 59-60, 65, 89, 90, 92-96, 238, 339, 361-365 China, 297, 298-300, 305, 309 Milan Automated Neurobehavioral System, 317-320 Neurobehavioral Core Test Battery, 87 Neurobehavioral Evaluation System, 41, 50, 51, 73-74, 80-82, 83, 89, 92, 318 Swedish Performance Evaluation System, 363, 366-390 Conduction velocity of slow fiber (CVSF), 290 Confounding factors, 57, 306, 312-313 Control groups, 6, 57, 82-83, 177 Cortical cells, 216 Cory-Slechta, Deborah A., 186, 407 Costa Rica, 19 Cree Indians, mercury exposure, 233 Cresol, 78 Cross-sectional studies, 6, 57 lead exposure, 231, 246, 248-249, 254 solvent exposure, 175, 176, 177 Cultural differences, 90-91 Cycadism, 20, 27, 35 Cycads, 12, 15, 16-23, 24, 27-35, 277, 280-281, 409 Cycasin, 23, 27, 32, 33 Czechoslovakia, 317, 319 D Dementia, 7, 91, 134, 270 animal models, 124-126, 127, 130, 185-186

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INDEX dialysis, 16, 235-236, 271 presenile, 12, 35, 237 progressive degenerative, 4, 6, 206, 209-212, 220 senile, 11, 36, 212, 277 Dendrites, 273 Denmark, 237, 319 Denver Developmental Screening Test, 233-234 Depression, 126 Developing countries, 59, 72, 312, 315, 317, 322, 329-331, 334-335, 338 Developmental behavioral toxicology, 192-193, 194, 199-200, 201, 269 Developmental psychology, 238-239 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM- III), 175-176, 340 Dialysis dementia, 16, 235-236, 271 Dichloroacetylene, 169 Dicrotophos, 106 Diethylstilbestrol, 191 Digit Classification Test, 368, 369, 388 Digit Learning Test, 87 Digit Serial Test, 320 Digit Span Test, 41, 47, 52, 58, 87, 302, 303, 320, 362 in Swedish performance battery, 368, 369, 373, 374, 376, 378, 379, 385, 388 Digit Symbol Test, 41, 47, 58, 302, 303, 320 Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), 103, 104-119, 126-127 Dinitro-o-cresol, 78 Diphtheria toxin, 278-279 Disinhibition, 131-132 Disulfoton, 108 Dopamine, 138, 178, 275, 279 Dopaminergic neurons, 227 Dose-effect relationship, 3, 49, 142-143, 193, 194, 270, 406 Drugs, 126, 128, 176 central nervous system, 141, 398 recreational, 167, 280, 333 therapeutic, 4, 8-9, 269, 275-276 tolerance development, 350 Dutch East India Company, 19 Dyslexia, 93 E Education, 339, 342-343, 375 Elderly, 11-12, 13, 91, 115, 282, 283 423 Electromagnetic fields, 296-297, 361, 366, 379 Elementary cognitive tasks, 60 Emotional changes, 52 Encephalopathy, 6-7, 164, 167, 174-179, 237, 230, 270 Environment in ALS/P-D, 12, 15 chemicals in, 222, 226-227, 268, 403 lead in, 244-246, 252-254, 255, 262-263 and lethality, 350-351 modulation of behavior, 347-350 and operant behavior, 351-353 and pesticides, 353-356 pollution, 281, 287 research design, 323-325, 357-358 toxicants in, 125, 126, 134, 137 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 8, 70, 161, 169, 229, 261, 262, 403 Environmental toxicology, 8 Enzymes, 106 Epidemiological research, 40 Erythrocytes, 106 free protoporphyrin, 250, 260 Erythropoiesis, 229-230 Esters, 236 Ethanol. See Alcohol Ethiopia, 12, 24 Ethnic composition, 338-339 Ethylbenzene, 360 Ethylene dibromide, 78 Europe, 337, 338 NCTB data, 83, 315, 316, 318-319 European Economic Community, 313, 386-387 "Expert systems," 94 Eyelid conditioning, 200-202 F Fatigue, 61, 376 Feingold, Ben F., 410 Fenvalerate, 327 Fetus, 191, 201 barbiturate exposure, 195-196 brain tissue implants, 221 DFP exposure, 104-108 lead exposure, 231, 255, 263 learning, 197-199 mercury exposure, 232, 233, 407, 408 Finger Tapping Tests, 368, 369, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377, 389

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424 Finland, 44, 83, 237, 319 Institute of Occupational Health, 40, 44, 45, 58, 71-72, 80-82, 309, 329 Fischer 344 rats, 111-114, 115, 116, 184, 185 Fish mercury in, 232, 233, 271, 409 PCB in, 234-235 Flicker fusion frequency, 305-306 Flinders rats, 114-115, 127-128 Florida, 20-21 Fluorocarbons, 78 Food mercury in, 232, 233 PCB in, 234-235 Food and Drug Administration, 261, 409 Forced swim test, 126 Formaldehyde, 78 Formamidine, 353-356 Formetanate, 353-356 Fosberg, F. Raymond, 22 Frostig Scales, 230 G Gajdusek, D. Carleton, 28 Gamma-aminobutyric ac id (G. ABA) pathways, 274 Gamma-diketone pathway, 168 Gammexane, 327 Gasoline lead in, 243, 244-245, 256, 263, 403 and memory, 326 Gehrig, Lou, 13 Gender ALS incidence and, 13 and neurobehavioral performance, 302-304 in Swedish performance battery, 373- 375 Genetic factors, 4, 110-115, 184-185 Ginkgoaceae, 16 Glial cells, 277 Glutamate excitotoxins, 282 Glutamate pathways, 274 Glutamate receptors, 33 Greece, 317 Groote Eylandt, Australia, 18 Guam, 11, 12, 13-15, 16, 17, 18, 21-22, 30, 31, 32, 281 INDEX H Hair mercury concentration, 232, 233, 408 Halogenated hydrocarbons, 236 Haloperidol, 350-351 Halstead Reitan Battery, 41 Hamsters, 194-195 Hand-eye coordination, 80 Hanninen, Helena, 89-90, 288, 315, 325 Harvard University, 59 Health effects, lead exposure, 252-254 Hearing, 170 lead and, 250-252, 253, 257-258 Heavy metals, 167, 289 Hematopoietic system, 252, 262 Heme biosynthesis, 229-230, 252, 262 Hemicholinium-3, 214-215 Heroin, 350 Hexacarbons, 168, 236 Hexane, 236, 268-269, 270, 282 High-affinity choline transport (HAChT), 209-210 Hippocampus, 110, 111, 113, 114, 116, 117, 127, 128, 131, 133, 134, 200, 216 Hoffman, Howard, 201 Hogstedt Symptom Questionnaire, 89 Homeostasis, 208, 210 calcium, 253, 254, 259, 263 Homovanillic acid, 308 Honduras, 19 Hormonal markers, 308 Hull, C. L., 119 Human studies aluminum toxicity, 235 animal extrapolation, 7, 115, 129, 187, 199, 239, 406, 410 barbiturate exposure, 195-196 brain implants, 221, 279-280 chemical effects, 101, 155, 226-227, 271-272 cycad use, 18, 35 eyelid conditioning, 200, 201 lead exposure, 138-139, 146-147, 254 neurobehavioral tests, 90-91 organophosphate exposure, 102, 126, 185 repeated acquisition, 153-154 schedule-controlled behavior, 146 solvent exposure, 80, 160-161, 162- 163, 164, 166, 168, 169-170, 176- 178, 237 toluene exposure, 398

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INDEX Hungary, 317, 319 Huntington's disease, 220 Hydrocarbons, 236 Hydrogen cyanide, 78 Hydrogen sulfide, 78 Hydrolysis ACh, 104, 209, 211 ANADe, 213 Hyperactivity, 134 Hyperparathyroidism, 15 Hypertension, lead and, 398-399 Hypothalamus, 178 IBM computers, 73, 367 Ibotenic acid, 124 Idria mines, 399 Illiteracy, 332-333, 339 India barriers to test development, 331-333, 338, 341 environmental research, 322-325 lathyrism in, 12, 24 neurobehavioral research, 325-331, 337 Indonesia, 7 Industrial chemicals, 79, 167, 317-318 neurobehavioral effects, 228-240 pollution, 293 solvents, 7, 159, 175, 179, 272, 360 Inescapable shock, 126 Inferential systems, 94-96 Information-processing theory, 60, 61, 62 Intellectual functions, 49 Intelligence, 239 lead exposure and, 138-139, 245, 249, 256-257, 260, 283, 293, 403-404 tests, 230, 298 International Commission on Occupational Health, 318 International Labor Organization, 335 International Symposium on Neurobehavioral Methods in Occupational Health, 313 Iraq, mercury poisoning, 232, 233, 408 Irian Jaya, 11, 12, 14, 17, 18, 23, 27-28, 30, 31 Israel, 317 Italy, 317, 318, 319 425 Japan ALS/P-D in, 12, 14, 15, 18, 23, 27-28, 29, 30, 31 PCB exposure, 234 Jaqai people, 14, 27-28 Jaundice epidemic, India, 323 Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 44 K Kainate, 33 Kanpur University, 325-329 Karolinska Institute, 178 Ketones, 78, 236 Kii peninsula, Japan, 12, 14, 15, 18, 23, 27-28, 29, 30, 31 Kisby, Glen, 32 Krasnegor, Norman A., 269 Kulig, Beverly M., 186 Kurland, Leonard, 15, 22 L Lactation, 255 Language differences, 339, 367 Larvicides, 327, 337 Lathyrism, 12, 23-27, 34, 268 Lead exposure, 78 and aging, 258-259, 283 China, 287, 288, 291-293, 294, 295 effects on children, 138, 146, 229-231, 243, 245-257, 260, 262-263, 292- 295, 308, 403-404, 407 environmental, 243-246, 262-263 and hypertension, 398-399, 408 India, 328-329 markers of, 254-255 nerve cell damage, 276 neurobehavioral effects, 138-147, 152, 176, 186, 226, 256-257, 270, 403 occupational, 56-58, 80, 230, 291, 305 test batteries and, 59, 61-62, 237-238, 239 Lead salts, 268-269 Learning, 146, 149, 150-152, 153, 239, 410. See also Cognitive function animal models of dementia, 124, 125, 126, 130, 185-186 lead exposure and, 139

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426 maze, 132-133 operant conditioning, 131-132 perinatal, 196-199, 202 practice effect bias, 306, 376 Leather industry, 328 Lethality, environment and, 350-351 Levi-Montalcini, Rita, 217-218 Lithium chloride, 197, 198-199 Locomotor activity, 134 Long Evans rats, 185 Longitudinal studies, 6, 192, 198, 409 Los Angeles, Calif., 8 Lowest-observed-adverse-effect level, 396 Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), 274 M McCarthy Scales, 230, 247 Magnesium deficiency, 15 Malathion, 78 MAM (methylazoxymethanol), 30-31, 32, 33, 35 Manic-depressive psychosis, 175 Mariana islands, 12, 14, 17, 22-23, 32 Maximum allowable concentration (MAC), 288, 332 Maze learning, 132-133 Medicaid, 195 Melville Island, 18-19 Memory, 150-151, 153, 178, 239. See also Cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease, 218, 220 animal models of dementia, 124, 125, 126, 129-130, 131-133, 134, 185-186 lead exposure and, 328 magnetic fields and, 296 solvent exposure and, 160, 326-327 test batteries, 41, 52, 64, 65, 74, 80, 298-299, 366 Memory Reproduction Test, 88 Mercury, 78. See also Fetus; Fish; Hair mercury concentration; Rats in China, 287, 288 Minamata disease, 232, 233, 271, 283- 284, 408 mine poisoning, 399 neurotoxicity, 226, 228-229, 231-234, 270, 276, 277 test batteries and, 58, 61, 64, 80 Metals, 167, 226, 228-229, 268-269, 289, 359 INDEX Methyl alcohol, 78 Methyl chloride, 80 Methylchloroform, 78, 360 Methylene chloride, 78, 360 Methyl ethyl ketone, 168, 236 Methyl isobutyl ketone, 360 Methyl isocyanide, 324 Methylmercury, 232-234, 271, 283-284, 317, 407-409 Methyl n-butyl ketone, 168, 282 Methyl parathion, 78 Methylphenidate, 187 Methylxanthine, 193 Mice, 33-34, 106, 110, 194, 350, 409. See also Rodents Michalek, Hanna, 184 Michigan, 195 Microtox battery, 59-60 Milan Automated Neurobehavioral System, 317-320 Mill Hill Vocabulary Test, 94 Minamata Bay, Japan, mercury poisoning, 232, 233, 271, 283-284, 408 Monkeys, 35, 143-144, 151, 152, 256-257. See also Primates Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, 274 Mortality ALS, 13 DFP, 115, 117-118, 119 heroin, 350 lead, 245 organophosphate, 102 phenobarbital, 194 Motoneuron diseases, 227 Motor conduction velocity (MCV), 290 Motor neurons, 227 Motor performance, 49, 96 anticholinesterases and, 132 brain implants and, 220 chemicals and, 77, 81 in test batteries, 80 MPTP (methylphenyltetrahydropyridine), 269, 276, 277, 279, 280, 407 Mulder, Donald, 22 Muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChR), 103, 104,106,108,109,110,111-114, 115-119, 127-129, 210, 213 Muscle cells, 278-279 Myelin, 277, 280 Myelinating cells, 278-279

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INDEX N NADe (N-animodeanol), 212-215, 214 Nanjing Medical College, 292 National Center for Toxicological Research, 70 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 250, 253-254, 262, 398-399 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 197 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 59, 72, 75-76, 78, 79, 83, 159, 261, 297, 313 National Institutes of Health, 22, 212 National Occupational Environmental Survey, 75 National Occupational Hazard Survey, 75 National Research Council, 2, 9, 222 Neonates, 201 barbiturate exposure, 195 neuronal function, 102 PCB exposure, 234-235 Nerve gases, 209 Nerve growth factor, 216-222 Nervous system. See also Central nervous system; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral nervous system adult, 235-237, 273-277 age and, 11, 101-102 ALS degeneration, 13 and behavior, 1, 2, 118, 347-349 chemical effects on, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 81, 86, 226-227, 268-269 cycads and, 33 development of, 216-217, 218, 229- 235, 277-278 lead effects, 258 mercury effects, 408 Neurobehavioral tests and, 63, 64, 70-71 pesticide effects, 353 solvent effects, 174, 179, 187, 236 Neuroanatomy, 119 Neurobehavioral Core Test Battery (NCTB), 4708, 51, 59, 72-73, 238, 343 applications in China, 297-304, 309 computerization, 87-88, 92, 318, 319- 320 international validation, 50, 66, 83, 314-317 language differences, 339 427 Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES), 41, 50, 51, 73-74, 80-82, 83, 89, 92, 318 Neurobehavioral toxicology, 2, 9, 119- 120, 137-138, 186, 206, 405-412. See also Neurotoxicity developmental, 192-193, 194, 199-200, 201, 269 environment and, 126-127, 347-350 human testing, 69-83, 90-91 regional requirements, 7-8, 331, 334- 335, 337-343 repeated acquisition procedures, 148- 155 research, 6-7, 65-66, 114, 147-148 risk assessment, 395-397, 398 test batteries, 39-53, 87-89, 91-92 test development, 56-66, 90, 278-284, 322, 340-341 tort law and, 400, 405 Neurobiology, 64 Neurodegenerative diseases, 11-13, 222, 227, 280, 283 chemical exposure history, 36, 281- 282 progressive degenerative dementias, 4, 6, 206, 209-212, 220 Neuroendocrine system, 278-279 Neurons, 348-349 age and, 102 autocannibalism, 213-214, 215 chemical effects on, 273-277 cycad damage, 34 degeneration of, 13, 258, 276, 278, 281 development of, 216-217, 218-219, 277 Neuropsychology, 64 Neurotoxicity. See also Neurobehavioral toxicology adaptive changes, 128, 129 aluminum, 226, 228-229, 235-236 animal models, 124-125, 168, 184, 193, 220 barbiturates, 195 behavioral effects, 76, 86, 96, 119, 147-148, 154-155, 312-313 behavioral endpoints and, 278-284, 401-403 behavioral tests and, 1, 48-49, 50-52, 63-64, 74, 91-92, 96-97, 148-149, 179, 322, 340-341

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428 chemicals, 75-78, 79, 81, 103-104, 147-148, 226-227, 268-269, 313- 314, 317-318 in China, 287-288 classification of, 227-228, 269-272, 273 cycads, 32-35 data base, 69-70 environmental effects, 357-358 identification of, 2-3, 193-195 in India, 323 lead, 138, 141-142, 230, 231, 244-246, 258. See also Lead exposure measurement of, 4-6, 196-199, 359- 362 mechanisms and sites of action, 1-2, 3-4, 62 mercury, 232-233, 408 organophosphates, 185 pesticides, 353 risk assessment, 3, 9, 101, 397, 402- 403, 412 solvents, 160-161, 164, 167, 169, 174, 175, 179, 187, 236-237 Neurotransmitters, 103, 138, 154, 273, 274-275, 278, 280, 307-308. See also Cholinergic system false transmitters, 212-216 New Guinea, 32 New Zealand lead study, 249 mercury exposure, 233-234 Nicotinic receptors, 103, 213 Nictitating membrane response, 200-202 Nitrites, 78 Niven, David, 13 NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate), 33, 34, 35 Noise, 78, 361 No-observed-effect level, 396 Norway, 237 Numerical ability, 366 Nunn, Peter, 25 o Occupational exposure, 399-400 carbon disulfide, 175, 282, 289, 338 chemicals, 75-76, 80, 226, 229, 268, 275-276, 281, 313-314 chemicals, India, 322, 323, 324-325, 326-327, 331-333, 334-335 China, 287-288 lead, 56-58, 80, 230, 291, 305 INDEX magnetic fields, 296-297 organophosphates, 102, 287, 327 regional characteristics, 338 solvents, 159, 160, 167, 175, 176-177, 179, 236, 282 testing, 72, 97, 238, 329-330, 340, 359- 361 tort law, 400, 405 video terminals, 295-296 Occupational Safety and Health Act (1970), 76 Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 261 Ohta, Masayuki, 29 Operant conditioning, 131-132, 348 environment and, 351-353 Optacon, 400 "Organic affective syndrome," 176 Organophosphate-induced delayed neurotoxicity, 185 Organophosphates, 184, 185, 207, 281, 287, 288, 327 and cholinergic system, 101, 102, 103, 106, 108, 110, 117 and memory, 126 Organotin, 305 Osertesky Motor Scales, 230 Overstreet, David H., 185 Oxotremorine, 128 Ozone, 401-402 p Pacific islands, 11-12, 32, 35, 268 Paint lead in, 245, 262-263 and memory, 326-327 solvents in, 360 Palmer, Valerie, 28, 29 Paracelsus, Philippus Aureolus, 3 Paraoxon, 103, 207 Parathion, 78, 103, 106, 207 Paresthesias, 408 Parkinsonism, 277 ALS/P-D, 12-16, 22, 28, 30, 31, 35, 36 animal models, 279-280, 406 brain implants, 221-222, 279-280 dopamine in, 138, 227 therapy, 275 Passive avoidance, 129-130, 131, 134, 178 Pavlov, I. P., 401 Pavlovian conditioning, 196-199

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INDEX Perceptual ability, 74 Periamygdaloid cortex, 276 Perikaryon, 273, 274 Peripheral nervous system, 227-228, 270, 312 lead effects, 230 organophosphate effects, 185 solvent effects, 168-174, 236 Permissible exposure level (PEL), 288 Pesticides, 102, 167, 207, 287, 288, 289, 337, 353-356 Petroleum solvents, 78 Pharmacodynamic processes, 108 Pharmacokinetic factors, 106 Pharmacology, 7, 127-129 Phenobarbital, 194 Pheny la l anin e, 4 Phenylketonuria, 4 Phospholipid metabolism, 213 Physiology, 119 Physostigmine, 133, 210, 211 Picrotoxin, 274 Pigeons, 152, 353 Piperidine dicarboxylic acid (PDA), 33, 34 Pittsburgh Occupational Exposures Test Battery, 44, 45 Plasma, 106 Plastics, 169 Poland, 317, 319 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 226, 228-229, 234-235 Positron emission tomography, 31, 279, 280 Prediction, 199 Pregnancy, 194, 255 barbiturate exposure, 195-196 and caffeine, 193 lead exposure, 246-247, 248, 254-255, 263 mercury exposure, 233, 409 Premarket testing, 69, 169 Presenile dementia, 12, 35, 237 Primary degenerative dementias, 124 Primates. See also Monkeys ALS/P-D models, 25, 27, 35 lead exposure, 146-147 learning studies, 150-151, 152 parkinsonism, 279 solvent exposure, 167 Profile of Mood States, 47, 51, 80-82, 300-302, 316, 319 429 Progressive degenerative dementias, 4, 6, 206, 209-212, 220 Prospective Memory Test, 89 Prospective studies, 6, 57-58, 66 lead exposure, 231, 246-248, 254 Proteins, 283 synthesis, 118, 218 Pro top o rphyrin, erythrocyte, 250, 260 Psychological function, 60, 96 Psychology, 39-40, 93, 179, 397 in India, 332 tests, 53, 70, 237-240, 304 theory, 6405, 90, 226 Psychometric theory, 93, 94 Psychomotor performance, 64, 74, 160, 233, 299-300 Psychomotor stimulants, 356 Psycho-organic syndromes, 237 Psychosis, 168, 175 Psychos oma tics, 20 7 Purdue Pegboard, 230 Pursuit Aiming Test, 47, 302-304, 320 Pyridoxine, 269-270 Q Quinuclidynyl benzilate (QNB) receptors, 105, 106, 107 Quisqualate, 33 R Rabbits, 193, 200-201 Radial arm maze, 132-133, 178 Rats, 23, 30-31, 193, 194, 350-351. See also Rodents cholinergic system, 101, 104, 213 dementia models, 128, 129-130, 131- 133 DFP exposure, 104-119, 126-127 fetal learning, 196-199 lead exposure, 139-141, 144-145, 146- 147, 186 mercury exposure, 408-409 nerve growth factor, 216 organophosphate exposure, 184-185 ozone exposure, 401-402 pesticide exposure, 353-356 repeated acquisition, 178 solvent exposure, 162, 163, 165, 166, 170, 171-174 toluene exposure, 398

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430 Rayon industry, 175, 289 Reaction time, 238, 305, 400 lead and, 250, 252 in Swedish performance battery, 380- 384 Reading ability, 93 Regulation, 69 environmental chemicals, 222 food chemicals, 215-216 lead, 243, 260-262 Reinforcement schedules, 131, 142-146, 397, 401 Renal function, 235-236 Repeated acquisition procedures, 148- 155, 178 Reproductive effects, lead exposure, 246- 247 Research, 6-7 chemical exposure, 282 developing countries, 341-343 environmental effects, 357-358 methodology, 89-90, 192-193, 257-258 test development, 66 test selection, 57-58 Retrospective studies. See Cross-sectional studies Risk assessment, 3, 9, 101, 395-397, 402- 403, 412 Rodents, 27, 194-195. See also Mice; Rats cholinergic system, 103, 115, 216 learning, 132 repeated acquisition procedures, 152 solvent exposure, 162, 167-168, 169, 170 Ross, Stephen, 33 Rota, 12, 14, 21 Ruffin, Joseph, 69 Russell, Roger W., 268, 269 S Santa Ana Dexterity Test, 40, 41, 47, 58, 80, 302, 303, 326, 327, 328 Santa Ana Rotation Test, 87 Saxitoxin, 274 Schedule-controlled behavior, 142-146, 152 Schwann cells, 219, 278-279 Scientific ethics, 126 Scopolamine, 127, 128, 130, 131 Screening, 2, 86-87, 186, 194 solvent effects, 169-174 INDEX test battery design, 61, 62-63, 65, 69- 70, 82, 92 Search and Memory Test, 368, 369, 373, 374, 375, 376, 388 Self-reports, 304-305, 363 in Swedish performance battery, 368, 369, 389-390 Seminole Indians, 20-21 Senile dementia, 11, 36, 212, 277 Sensory function, 80, 82 chemicals and, 77, 81 lead and, 61-62, 257-258 solvents and, 169-174 Serotonergic pathways, 274 Sexual maturation, 194-195 Shanghai Development Center of Science and Technology, 305 Shanghai Medical University, 292-293, 297 Short-term exposure limit, 399 Simple Reaction Time, 47, 50, 88, 303, 319, 362, 363 in Swedish performance battery, 365, 368, 369, 372, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377-378, 379, 380, 385-386, 387 Smotherman, William, 197 Socioeconomic status, 339-340 Sodium, 274, 278 Solvent exposure, 226, 228-229, 236-237, 268-269, 270, 271, 272, 282, 289 acute effects, 160-168 animal models, 160, 161-163, 168-169, 178-179, 180187 chronic effects, 168-174, 399 encephalopathy, 174-179 health standards, 56, 159-160 performance test assessment, 7, 59, 71, 88, 359, 360, 366, 372, 385-386 and reaction time, 63 recreational abuse, 167-168 studies in India, 326-327 subclinical effects, 227-228 South America, 314 Soviet Union, 319, 400-403 Spanish Toxic Oil Syndrome, 272 Spatial resolution, 141-142 Sperry, R. W., 217 Spinal cord, 185 Spinal transection, 198 Spontaneous abortion, lead and, 247 Sprague-Dawley rats, 111, 118 Stanford-Binet test, 230

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INDEX Startle response, 201 Statistical interpretation, lead studies, 255-257 Sternberg memory scanning test, 60 Stress, 126-127 Stress and Arousal Checklist, 89 Striatum, 113, 114, 116, 117, 127, 220 Styrene, 49, 78, 165, 170, 178, 187, 237, 360 Substantia nigra, 279, 280 Suicide, 175 Supranuclear palsy, 277 Sweden, 237, 319 National Board of Safety and Health, 88 National Institute of Occupational Health, 365, 372-373 Swedish Performance Evaluation System (SPES), 363, 366-390 Symbol Digit Test, 368, 369, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377, 378, 379, 380, 385, 388 Systemic toxicants, 395-397 T Tardive dyskinesia, 280 Target organ effects, 74, 75-79, 80-83, 160 Test batteries barriers to development, 61~6, 331- 333 China, 289-290, 291-293, 295-296, 304-310 computer-based, 92-96, 361-365 current test batteries, 39-53, 87-89, 91-92 design, 58~3 developing countries, 329-331 human testing, 69-83, 90-91 methodology, 89-90 rationales for, 70-74, 86-87 target organ effects, 80-83 test development, 5606, 90 Testosterone, 195 Tetanus, 268 Tetra chl o ro e than e, 78 Tetrodotoxin, 274 Thalidomide, 5, 191, 269, 277 Thallium, 176, 270, 276 Theory-based tests, 60-62, 65, 90 Thiols, 78 Threshold Limit Values (TLV), 1, 3, 79, 161, 329-330, 332, 341, 399, 400 437 Tiwi people, 18-19 T maze, 132 Tolerance development antiChE, 103, 128, 131-132, 210 organophosphate, 185 solvents, 164-165, 187 Toluene, 78, 236 hearing loss, 170 neurochemical effects, 162, 178, 304, 360, 377-378, 398 recreational abuse, 167, 168 tolerance development, 164-165 Tone discrimination, 305 Tooth lead concentration, 229, 230, 250, 251, 254 Tort law, 400, 405 Toxicants. See Neurotoxicity Toxic Oil Syndrome, 272 Toxic Substances Control Act (1976), 70, 169, 403 "Toxicopsychology," 288 Trail Making Test, 41 Trauma, 91 Triadimefon, 187, 356 Trichloroethane, 78 Trichloroethylene, 165-166, 168-169, 187, 236, 237, 360 Triethylcholine, 212 Trimethyltin, 151-152, 282 Trinitrotoluene exposure, China, 287, 288 Tungsten, 78 TURBO Pascal, 368 Turkey, 317 U United Kingdom, 318 Institute of Occupational Health, 89 United States ALS incidence, 13 behavioral toxicology, 397 carbon disulfide use, 338 chemical exposure, 75-76 Department of Housing and Urban Development, 261 elderly population, 11 environmental movement, 403 lead regulation, 243, 260-262, 263 NCTB validation, 83, 314, 318 organic solvent exposure, 159 zamia poisoning in, 20-21 University of Milan, 87-88, 319, 342-343

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432 University of North Carolina, 59-60 University of Wisconsin, 257 Uttar Pradesh, India, 323 V Vanillylmandelic acid, 308 Verbal memory, 49 Verbal Reasoning Test, 369, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377, 385, 389 Video display terminals, 293-296 Visual function lead exposure and, 61-62, 139-141, 258 perception tests, 299 styrene exposure and, 165 Visual memory, 49 Visual Recognition Memory Test, 235 Visual Searching test, 41 Vitamin B6, 269-270 Vitamin D, 253, 259, 262 Vlamingh, Willem de, 19 Vocabulary Test, 368, 369, 389 W Weakness, 80, 82 Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales (WAIS), 40, 41, 44, 45, 58, 59, 230, 304, 361 Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS), 40, 52, 59, 304 INDEX Weiss, Bernard, 4 West Germany, 318, 319 White spirits, 162-163, 236, 360, 365-366 Whiting, Marjorie, 22 Williamson, Ann M., 90 Winneke, Gerhard, 271 WISC-R, 89, 292-293, 294, 304 Wistar rats, 111-114, 115, 184 World Health Organization, 47, 80-82, 83, 169, 325-326, 329, 335, 342, 360, 361 Office of Environmental Health Service, 317 Office of Occupational Health, 313 World War II, 32, 97, 209 Worksites. See Occupational exposure X X-ray fluorescence, 254 Xylene, 78, 170, 360 y Yugoslavia, 317 Yusho, 234 Zamia plants, 20-21 Zinc oxide, 78 z