expenditures for the day), or offer both options. Each approach has unique advantages and disadvantages, yet an understanding of any measurement differences is needed first.

Experimentation will be needed in determining the best way for the technology to provide help in key entry of items. Possibilities include drop-down menus, automated “completion” of a word being entered, and other options. Experimentation is needed to develop prompts to encourage forgotten expenditures.

In addition to designing an intuitive interface, a critical aspect of the design of the application is to maintain respondent engagement and to effectively motivate respondents to report all expenditures. For example, since the respondents are provided with the tablet device, it is possible to include games and utilities that improve user engagement. The interface itself can use features of “gamification”—applying psychological and attitudinal factors underlying successful games to motivational strategies to improve user engagement, such as virtual badges, points, and status levels. Experiments will be needed in order to achieve a design that attains a high level of respondent engagement, which can in turn help to collect more accurate and complete data.

The choice of a tablet device, the design of the interface, and the addition of any motivation features are all prerequisites for the successful implementation of a tablet device to collect expenditure data. Yet there are fundamental questions about the cost feasibility and ubiquitous use of the tablet technology that need to be addressed. First among these questions is what proportion of the households (consumer units, or CUs) will have the motivation and ability to use a tablet, once an intuitive interface has been constructed. The answer to this question does not necessarily affect the use of a tablet device, but it can inform the overall design and resource allocation.

Several direct comparisons to the use of a paper-and-pencil instrument will be needed to determine the desirability of using a tablet device. Such a comparison will also allow for a better understanding of measurement differences between the two modes, as a likely final design will involve the use of both modes by different sample members. Comparisons between the two modes will be needed for both cost and quality outcomes, as a trade-off is likely. Finally, much of the objective in the CE redesign lies in reduction of respondent burden; the tablet and the paper-and-pencil administration need to be compared in terms of respondent burden.

How people keep financial records. A fruitful line of research may be to gain a better understanding of how different people and households keep financial and expenditure data. This could inform the methods used to collect the expenditure data and the design of the tablet interface, as well as



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