summarizes the two presentations that focused on methodologies and limitations of attaching monetary value to costs and benefits.

Chapters 6 and 7 summarize group discussion that occurred throughout the course of the workshop, including discussion that occurred during the small working group portion of the workshop. About one-third of the workshop time was spent in small working groups. There were four working groups: energy usage and GHG emissions; soil, water, and other environmental consequences; consequences of antimicrobial use in agriculture; and other public health consequences. The groups were asked to identify effects, methodologies for measuring those effects, and limitations of the methodologies. Chapter 6 includes a summary of these working group discussions. Chapter 7 provides an overview of the major overarching themes from all the open discussions that occurred throughout the workshop, including participants’ reflections on key considerations for moving forward with future work in this area.

This workshop summary was prepared by the rapporteurs as a factual summary of the presentations and discussions that took place during the

BOX 1-3
Key Terms Used in This Report

End-of-life: In the context of LCA, end-of-life refers to the stage of the product after preparation and consumption by the conumer. At this stage, the food product is disposed of in some manner (e.g., recycled or placed in a landfill).

Health impact assessment (HIA): HIA is not a single method, but rather a systematic process that uses a wide array of data sources, analytical methods, and stakeholder input to determine the potential effects of a proposed policy, plan, program, or project on the health of a population and the distribution of those effects within the population.

Life cycle assessment (LCA): In the context of the food system, LCA is a tool for examining the environmental impact of a product that covers the impacts of manufacturing, of the upstream production chain (e.g., material extraction, fuels, transportation, etc.) and downstream disposal (e.g., recycling, landfilling, etc.). According to Heller and Keoleian (2003), “a product life cycle approach provides a useful framework for studying the links between societal needs, the natural and economic processes involved in meeting these needs, and the associated environmental consequences.”

Life cycle stages: For a food product, the following life cycle stages are considered in the context of economic, social, and environmental sustainability indicators: the origin of the product; agricultural and production conditions; processing, packaging, and distribution of the product; preparation and consumption by the consumer; and the end-of-life of the product (Heller and Keoleian, 2003).

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