Measurement/Limitations Externality? Trade-offs Related to Alternative Strategies Measurement/Limitations Life Cycle Stage
What indicators or methods can be used to measure this effect? Is the effect an externality? What are the trade-offs (economic, environmental, health, or other) associated with the practice(s) that are causing the effect? What indicators or method can be used to measure the trade-offs? At what stage of the life cycle is the source of this effect occurring? Choose one of the following:
What methodological limitations may inhibit measuring this effect? Yes (Y), No (N), or Unclear (U) What methodological limitations may inhibit measuring the trade-offs?

• resource origin

• agricultural production

• food processing, packaging & distribution

• preparation & consumption


Key points from the discussion are summarized here, as reported back to the group at large by Greg Keoleian, the Peter M. Wege Endowed Professor of Sustainable Systems at the University of Michigan. According to Keoleian, the group observed that the matrix (Table 6-1) could be useful, but decided that filling it out would have been too time consuming, given how much is already known about GHG emissions and energy use.


LCA was perceived as the tool of choice for evaluating both GHG emissions and energy use in a comprehensive way by individual participants of the group. With respect to GHG emissions, LCA could be used to evaluate both major emissions (i.e., CO2, CH4, N2O) and minor emissions (e.g., chlorofluorocarbons used as refrigerants; perfluorocarbons used during aluminum production). Some emissions data are available at the national level (e.g., Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] reports on

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