Gibson, G. R., and M. B. Roberfroid. 1995. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: Introducing the concept of prebiotics. Journal of Nutrition 125(6):1401-1412.
Hempel, S., S. Newberry, A. Ruelaz, Z. Wang, J. N. Miles, M. J. Suttorp, B. Johnsen, R. Shanman, W. Slusser, N. Fu, A. Smith, B. Roth, J. Polak, A. Motala, T. Perry, and P. G. Shekelle. 2011. Safety of probiotics to reduce risk and prevent or treat disease. Evidence report/technology assessment No. 200. (Prepared by the Southern California Evidence-Based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-2007-10062-1.) AHRQ Publication No. 11-e007. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Hooda, S., B. M. Boler, M. C. Serao, J. M. Brulc, M. A. Staeger, T. W. Boileau, S. E. Dowd, G. C. Fahey, Jr., and K. S. Swanson. 2012. 454 pyrosequencing reveals a shift in fecal microbiota of healthy adult men consuming polydextrose or soluble corn fiber. Journal of Nutrition 142(7):1259-1265.
IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2002. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Kim, S., E. R. Dougherty, M. L. Bittner, Y. Chen, K. Sivakumar, P. Meltzer, and J. M. Trent. 2000. General nonlinear framework for the analysis of gene interaction via multivariate expression arrays. Journal of Biomedical Optics 5(4):411-424.
Levin, B. R., V. Perrot, and N. Walker. 2000. Compensatory mutations, antibiotic resistance and the population genetics of adaptive evolution in bacteria. Genetics 154(3):985-997.
Leyer, G. J., S. Li, M. E. Mubasher, C. Reifer, and A. C. Ouwehand. 2009. Probiotic effects on cold and influenza-like symptom incidence and duration in children. Pediatrics 124(2):e172-e179.
Lindsey, R. L., J. G. Frye, S. N. Thitaram, R. J. Meinersmann, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, and M. D. Englen. 2011. Characterization of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli by antimicrobial resistance profiles, plasmid replicon typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Microbial Drug Resistance 17(2):157-163.
LoCascio, R. G., M. R. Ninonuevo, S. L. Freeman, D. A. Sela, R. Grimm, C. B. Lebrilla, D. A. Mills, and J. B. German. 2007. Glycoprofiling of bifidobacterial consumption of human milk oligosaccharides demonstrates strain specific, preferential consumption of small chain glycans secreted in early human lactation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55(22):8914-8919.
Looft, T., T. A. Johnson, H. K. Allen, D. O. Bayles, D. P. Alt, R. D. Stedtfeld, W. J. Sul, T. M. Stedtfeld, B. Chai, J. R. Cole, S. A. Hashsham, J. M. Tiedje, and T. B. Stanton. 2012. In-feed antibiotic effects on the swine intestinal microbiome. PNAS 109(5):1691-1696.
Macaubas, C., N. H. de Klerk, B. J. Holt, C. Wee, G. Kendall, M. Firth, P. D. Sly, and P. G. Holt. 2003. Association between antenatal cytokine production and the development of atopy and asthma at age 6 years. Lancet 362(9391):1192-1197.
Madara, J. 2004. Building an intestine—architectural contributions of commensal bacteria. New England Journal of Medicine 351(16):1685-1686.
Marcobal, A., M. Barboza, J. W. Froehlich, D. E. Block, J. B. German, C. B. Lebrilla, and D. A. Mills. 2010. Consumption of human milk oligosaccharides by gut-related microbes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58(9):5334-5340.
Martin, M. C., M. Fernandez, D. M. Linares, and M. A. Alvarez. 2005. Sequencing, characterization and transcriptional analysis of the histidine decarboxylase operon of Lactobacillus buchneri. Microbiology 151(Pt 4):1219-1228.
Martinez, I., J. Kim, P. R. Duffy, V. L. Schlegel, and J. Walter. 2010. Resistant starches types 2 and 4 have differential effects on the composition of the fecal microbiota in human subjects. PLoS ONE 5(11):e15046.
Martinez, J. L. 2009. Environmental pollution by antibiotics and by antibiotic resistance determinants. Environmental Pollution 157(11):2893-2902.