Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 159
B Speaker Biographical Sketches Jennifer Brulc, Ph.D., is senior scientist at the General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition. Prior to working at General Mills, Dr. Brulc com- pleted her postdoctoral work at the Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology at Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago, where she studied the use of bioinformatics and newly developed genomics technologies both to observe the microbial impact on human gastrointesti- nal disease states and to assess metabolic potential differentiation and mi- crobial influence on ecosystem development in topsoil environments. This research built upon her Ph.D. research under Dr. Bryan A. White, in which Dr. Brulc focused on the divergence of complex microbial communities and their resulting community interactions on host nutrition and diet adapta- tion in mammalian gastrointestinal tracts as related to efficient fiber deg- radation, using second-generation DNA sequencing technologies. Dr. Brulc received her Ph.D. from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Fergus M. Clydesdale, Ph.D., is distinguished university professor, Depart- ment of Food Science, University of Massachusetts Amherst, and director of the University of Massachusetts Food Science Policy Alliance. From 1988 to 2008, he was head of the Department of Food Science, which at the time of his retirement was ranked the top department in the university in student satisfaction and recently ranked the top department in the country by the National Research Council. He is a fellow of five premier societies in the field of food science and nutrition and editor of Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, and he has published some 375 scientific articles and coauthored or edited 20 books. Dr. Clydesdale also has served 159
OCR for page 160
160 THE HUMAN MICROBIOME, DIET, AND HEALTH on or chaired numerous committees of the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), International Food Information Council (IFIC), and the National Academies as well as serving on the Food and Nutrition Board and the 2005 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. He is the recipient of numerous awards, including IFT’s highest honor, the Nicolas Appert Award. Stuart A. S. Craig, Ph.D., is director, regulatory and scientific affairs, for DuPont Nutrition and Health. His current responsibilities include the safety, physiological benefits, and regulatory status of food ingredients. His focus is on carbohydrates (dietary fiber, prebiotics, glycemic response) and methyl metabolism in sports nutrition and the prevention of chronic disease. Dr. Craig has previously held research positions at Kansas State University, Nabisco, Pfizer, and Cultor. During that time he has conducted studies and led groups in the areas of biochemistry, physical chemistry, food safety, microbiology, sensory science, and nutrition. He has authored or co-authored numerous papers in peer-reviewed journals and book chapters. Dr. Craig is an inventor on several patents and has presented extensively in the United States, Europe, and Asia. He is past president of AACC International; past chair of the Starch Roundtable; and a member of the American Chemical Society, Royal Society of Chemistry, Institute of Food Technologists, and American Society for Nutrition. Dr. Craig is active with the ILSI, where he is past chair of the Food, Nutrition, and Safety Program. He received his B.Sc. and Ph.D. in biochemistry from Heriot-Watt Univer- sity, Edinburgh, Scotland. Richard Darveau, Ph.D., is professor and chair in the Department of Peri- odontics at the University of Washington Dental School in Seattle. He is funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research and is actively exploring the relationship between the oral flora and periodon- tal health and disease in his laboratory. Dr. Darveau has more than 100 publications, holds several patents, and has served on numerous National Institutes of Health (NIH) study sections as well as scientific advisory boards for dental health–related companies. Dr. Darveau was awarded the International Association of Dental Researchers 2007 Basic Research in Periodontal Disease Award. He has been an invited speaker for numerous national and international meetings. He received his Ph.D. in microbiol- ogy from Washington State University, did a postdoctoral fellowship with the Canadian Cystic Fibrosis Foundation for 2 years, and then worked in industry with Abbott Laboratories and Bristol-Myers Squibb for 14 years as a research scientist and group leader.
OCR for page 161
APPENDIX B 161 Cindy D. Davis, Ph.D., is the director of grants and extramural activities in the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at NIH. In this position she actively engages and encourages partnerships with other NIH institutes and centers to facilitate funding of grants that are of high relevance to ODS mission and goals. Before coming to ODS in November 2011, Dr. Davis was a program director in the Nutritional Sciences Research Group at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), where she had worked since 2002. Prior to NCI, she was a research nutritionist at the U.S. Department of Agricul- ture (USDA) Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, where her research focused on the effect of trace minerals on cancer susceptibility. Dr. Davis has published more than 100 peer-reviewed journal articles and 11 invited book chapters. She is on the editorial board of the Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, and Nutrition Reviews. Dr. Davis received her Ph.D. in nutrition with a minor in human cancer biology from the University of Wisconsin. She completed her postdoctoral training at the Laboratory of Experimental Carcinogenesis at NCI. Sharon Donovan, Ph.D., R.D., is professor and Melissa M. Noel Endowed Chair in Nutrition and Health at the University of Illinois. She was the first recipient of the Melissa M. Noel Endowed Chair at the University of Illinois. She served as director of the Division of Nutritional Sciences Inter- disciplinary Graduate Program from 1999 to 2009. Her research focuses on pediatric nutrition, with an emphasis on optimization of neonatal intestinal development. She compares the biological effects of human milk and infant formulas on intestinal function in human infants, in neonatal piglets, and in various models of intestinal disease. Dr. Donovan has published more than 100 peer-reviewed publications, review articles, and conference proceed- ings. She is the recipient of several awards in recognition of her research, including the Mead Johnson Award and the Norman A. Kretchmer Award from the American Society for Nutrition. Dr. Donovan received her B.S. and Ph.D. in nutrition from the University of California, Davis, and com- pleted her postdoctoral fellowship in pediatric endocrinology at Stanford University School of Medicine. George C. Fahey, Jr., Ph.D., is professor emeritus of animal sciences and Kraft Foods endowed professor emeritus of nutritional sciences at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where he has been a faculty member since 1976. His area of research is carbohydrate nutrition, includ- ing work on dietary fibers, oligosaccharides, resistant starch, and novel polysaccharides. An overarching theme of his program is gastrointestinal tract health and the role of carbohydrates in the improvement of indexes of gut health. Glycemic control and its relationship to diabetes constitute
OCR for page 162
162 THE HUMAN MICROBIOME, DIET, AND HEALTH another major area of study. Dr. Fahey has advised more than 90 indi- viduals to the successful completion of their graduate degree programs or postdoctoral research associate positions. He serves on a number of edito- rial boards and on several scientific advisory boards for companies and professional organizations. He is a frequent speaker at both academic and industry events and has published extensively in his research areas. He has won research awards from his department, college, and university, as well as national and international awards. Bruce German, Ph.D., is professor in the Department of Food Science and Technology at the University of California, Davis, and director of the Foods for Health Institute at the university. He joined the faculty at UC Davis in 1988; in 1997, he was named the first John E. Kinsella Endowed Chair in Food Nutrition and Health. His research interests include the structure and function of dietary lipids, the role of milk components in food and health, and the application of metabolic assessment to personalized health. He received his Ph.D. from Cornell University. Johanna W. Lampe, Ph.D., R.D., is a member and associate division direc- tor in the Public Health Sciences Division at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and a research professor in the Department of Epidemi- ology at the University of Washington in Seattle. Her research program addresses the effect of plant-food constituents on cancer susceptibility in humans and the interindividual variation in gut bacterial metabolism of phytochemicals. Her group uses controlled dietary interventions to evaluate cancer biomarker response to diet and specific phytochemicals and diet- induced changes in the gut microbiome. Dr. Lampe received her Ph.D. in nutritional sciences, with a minor in biochemistry, from the University of Minnesota and trained as a postdoctoral fellow in epidemiology at the Uni- versity of Minnesota before joining the faculty at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in 1994. Dan D. Levy, Ph.D., is a microbiologist and supervisor of the New Dietary Ingredient Review Team in the Division of Dietary Supplement Programs at the FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN). Prior to evaluating the safety of dietary supplement ingredients in pre-market new dietary ingredient notifications, he studied the molecular genetics of foodborne pathogens as a research scientist at CFSAN. He has authored more than 20 peer-reviewed scientific publications; his current research col- laborations include development of genetic methods for the identification of live microbial “probiotic” food ingredients, validation of the comet assay, and interpretation of data from genetic toxicology testing methods. He co- chaired the 2010 New York Academy of Sciences Conference “Probiotic
OCR for page 163
APPENDIX B 163 Foods and Supplements” and was FDA project officer for the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) evidence report on the safety of probiotics. Dr. Levy received his Ph.D. from the New York University Sackler Institute of Biomedical Sciences and did his postdoctoral training at NCI and the Center for Nuclear Studies in Grenoble, France. David Julian McClements, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Food Science at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. He specializes in the areas of food biopolymers and colloids and, in particular, the develop- ment of food-based structured delivery systems for active components. Dr. McClements has received awards from the American Chemical Society, American Oil Chemists Society, Institute of Food Technologists, and Uni- versity of Massachusetts in recognition of his scientific achievements. His research has been funded by grants from the U.S. Department of Agricul- ture, National Science Foundation, U.S. Department of Commerce, Dairy Management Incorporated, and the food industry. He is a member of the editorial board of a number of journals and has organized workshops and conferences in the field of food colloids, food emulsions, and delivery sys- tems. Dr. McClements received his Ph.D. in food science at the University of Leeds. He then did postdoctoral research at the University of Leeds, University of California, Davis, and University College Cork in Ireland. David Mills, Ph.D., is professor in the Department of Viticulture and Enol- ogy in the Robert Mondavi Institute for Wine and Food Sciences at the University of California, Davis. Dr. Mills studies the molecular biology of lactic acid bacteria in food and beverage fermentations or as probiotics in intestinal health. He has served as a Waksman Foundation Lecturer for the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) and currently serves as an as- sociate editor for the journal Microbiology. He has held various positions, including chair, with the food microbiology division of ASM. In 2010, Dr. Mills was awarded the Cargill Flavor Systems Specialties Award from the American Dairy Science Association. Karen Nelson, Ph.D., is president of the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI), where she has worked for the past 16 years. Prior to being appointed presi- dent, she held a number of other positions at the institute, including director of JCVI’s Rockville, Maryland, campus, and director of human microbiol- ogy and metagenomics in the Department of Human Genomic Medicine at JCVI. Dr. Nelson has extensive experience in microbial ecology, microbial genomics, microbial physiology, and metagenomics. Since joining the JCVI legacy institutes, she has led several genomic and metagenomic efforts and the first human metagenomics study on fecal material derived from three individuals that was published in 2006. Additional ongoing studies in her
OCR for page 164
164 THE HUMAN MICROBIOME, DIET, AND HEALTH group include metagenomic approaches to study the ecology of the gastro- intestinal tract of humans and animals, studies on the relationship between the microbiome and various human and animal disease conditions, refer- ence genome sequencing and analysis primarily for the human body, and other -omics studies. Dr. Nelson received her undergraduate degree from the University of the West Indies and her Ph.D. from Cornell University. Josef Neu, M.D., is professor of pediatrics and director of the Neonatol- ogy Fellowship Training Program in the Division of Neonatology at the University of Florida. He has served on the Council for the Organization of Neonatal Training Program Directors (ONTPD) for the past 3 years and has recently completed 2 years as national chairman of ONTPD. Dr. Neu is internationally recognized for his research in developmental gastro nterology and nutrition and has most recently focused his research e efforts on the microbiome. He is currently funded by NIH to study the developing microbiome and to discover biomarkers in babies at risk for developing necrotizing enterocolitis. This involves a multicenter evalua- tion of intestinal microbiota using novel non–culture-based technologies. He did his medical school training at the University of Wisconsin, was a pediatric resident at Johns Hopkins University, and was a postdoctoral neonatology fellow at Stanford University. Jeremy Nicholson, Ph.D., is head of the Department of Surgery and Cancer at the Imperial College London. He leads the research program of the Imperial College Healthcare Trust (National Health Service) Surgery and Cancer Clinical Programme and the Imperial Area Health Authority Biomedical Research Centre Programme in Stratified Medicine for opti- mizing translational medicine for patient safety and health care delivery. Dr. Nicholson has authored more than 500 peer-reviewed papers and many other articles or patents on molecular aspects of complex system failure and the role of the microbiome-host metabolic signaling in disease etiopatho- genesis. He is a fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists, the Royal Soci- ety of Chemistry, the Institute of Biology, and the UK Academy of Medical Sciences. He is on the editorial board of several major international science journals and is consulting editor for the Journal of Proteome Research. He is a consultant to many pharmaceutical and health care companies in the United Kingdom, continental Europe, and the United States and is a found- ing director of Metabometrix, an Imperial College spin-off company spe- cializing in molecular phenotyping, clinical diagnostics, and toxicological screening. He received his Ph.D. from London University, working on the application of analytic electron microscopy and the applications of energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis in molecular toxicology.
OCR for page 165
APPENDIX B 165 Lita Marie Proctor, Ph.D., is the coordinator of the NIH Common Fund Human Microbiome Project as well as program director in the Na- tional Human Genome Research Institute. Prior to her current position, Dr. Proctor held appointments at Florida State University and at the Uni- versity of California, Santa Cruz. She also served as a program director at the National Science Foundation (NSF). Dr. Proctor obtained her Ph.D. in oceanography from the State University of New York at Stony Brook. She trained as an NSF postdoctoral fellow in molecular genetics at the Univer- sity of California, Los Angeles. Sarah Roller, J.D., R.D., M.P.H., is a partner with the Washington, DC, law firm Kelley Drye & Warren LLP and chair of the Food and Drug Law Practice. She focuses her practice on the representation of U.S. and global companies and industry trade organizations engaged in the development, manufacture, import, export, distribution, and marketing of food and beverage products and components and the associated regulatory issues involved at the international, federal, and state levels. Ms. Roller assists companies in developing legal risk management strategies and compliance programs, establishing that product formulations and ingredients meet regulatory agency standards, and ensuring that product benefit claims are adequately substantiated by scientific evidence. She previously worked as a life sciences policy analyst with the Congressional Research Service and served as a clinical research nutritionist with the Mt. Sinai Hypertension Trial conducted by Mt. Sinai Hospital and the University of Minnesota. Ms. Roller is a member of the American Bar Association; American Soci- ety for Law, Medicine, and Ethics; American Public Health Association; Institute of Food Technologists; and American Dietetic Association. She is a registered dietitian and received her J.D. from the George Washington University Law School. Michelle Rusk, J.D., is a senior staff attorney in the Division of Advertising Practices, Bureau of Consumer Protection, at the Federal Trade Commis- sion (FTC). The division is responsible for regulating national advertising matters, including claims about foods, over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, di- etary supplements, cosmetics, alcohol, tobacco, and environmental prod- ucts. Ms. Rusk has been responsible for coordination of FTC enforcement activities for food and dietary supplement advertising and has been involved in various policy matters related to food marketing during her 20-year career at the commission. Following passage of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, she worked on developing an FTC policy on food advertising to harmonize with FDA and USDA regulations. She was involved in writing FTC’s 1994 Enforcement Policy Statement on Food Advertising. Ms. Rusk also developed FTC’s 1998 Dietary Supplements:
OCR for page 166
166 THE HUMAN MICROBIOME, DIET, AND HEALTH An Advertising Guide for Industry. She was the 1999 recipient of the com- mission’s Paul Rand Dixon Award for her work in the dietary supplement area. She is currently working on issues related to childhood obesity and is part of an interagency working group charged by Congress with developing recommendations for nutritional standards for foods marketed to children. Ms. Rusk joined FTC from private practice in 1990. She graduated from Harvard University and received her J.D. from the Georgetown University Law Center. Seppo Salminen, Ph.D., is professor of health biosciences and director of the Functional Foods Forum at the University of Turku in Finland. Dr. Salminen has led research groups on intestinal microbiota evaluation and probiotics and prebiotics. He has served as an expert for novel foods and foods with health claims at the Finnish and European food authorities and participated in expert work by several scientific organizations. He has been a visiting professor for several terms at the RMIT University Key Centre for Applied and Nutritional Toxicology in Melbourne, Australia, and the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU) in Vienna, Aus- tria. He is an author of more than 300 papers on probiotics, prebiotics, gut health, and food and nutritional toxicology. He is also a fellow of the Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ) and has received several international awards. Mary Ellen Sanders, Ph.D., is a consultant in the area of probiotic micro- biology. Her recent focus has been on efficacy substantiation, microbiol- ogy, and regulatory issues pertaining to probiotics. She has coordinated or collaborated on clinical studies to validate probiotic efficacy, served on GRAS (generally recognized as safe) determination panels, partici- pated in a working group convened by FAO-WHO (Food and Agriculture O rganization-World Health Organization) to make recommendations to Codex for guidelines for use of probiotics, and served on the World Gastro enterology Organisation Guidelines Committee preparing guidelines for the use of probiotics and prebiotics for gastroenterologists. Dr. Sanders serves as executive director of the International Scientific Association for P robiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP; www.isapp.net). She also hosts a website, along with the California Dairy Research Foundation, that provides objec- tive, evidence-based information on probiotics for consumers and profes- sionals (www.usprobiotics.org). Darren Seifer is the food and beverage industry analyst for the NPD Group, a leading market research company. He provides insights based on NPD’s food-related research to organizations and companies across the coun- try. Prior to joining NPD in 2007, he was an analyst with Information
OCR for page 167
APPENDIX B 167 R esources, Inc., and spent more than 7 years examining consumer pack- aged goods trends and working with a variety of industry leaders covering d ozens of food and beverage categories. Mr. Seifer has authored NPD topi- cal reports on how the economy affects consumers’ in-home meal strategies, the profile of the organics consumer, and the impact of baby boomers and millennials on America’s eating patterns, and he has been a contributing writer for trade publications. Mr. Seifer holds a bachelor’s degree from Northwestern University. Ellen Silbergeld, Ph.D., is professor in epidemiology, environmental health sciences, and health policy and management at Johns Hopkins University. Her research and professional activities bridge science and public policy, with a focus on the incorporation of mechanistic toxicology into environ- mental and occupational health policy. Her areas of current focus include cardiovascular risks of arsenic, lead, and cadmium; immunotoxicity of mercury compounds; and the health and environmental impacts of indus- trial food animal production. She has served as a science adviser for several federal agencies, including the Environmental Protection Agency and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as international or- ganizations such as the World Bank and the United Nations Environment Programme. She is editor-in-chief of Environmental Research and serves on the editorial board of several high-impact journals. She has received numer- ous awards, including a lifetime achievement award from the Society of Toxicology, the Barsky Award of the American Public Health Association, and a “Genius Award” from the MacArthur Foundation. Dr. Silbergeld is trained in environmental engineering and toxicology and holds a Ph.D. in environmental engineering from Johns Hopkins University. Peggy Steele, M.S., is a global business director within the Nutrition and Health Division of DuPont. Ms. Steele has more than 20 years of experi- ence in the food and dairy industry, where she has held positions in business development, product management, research and development, and quality assurance. She has her B.S. degree in nutrition from San Jose State Univer- sity and her M.S. degree in food science from the University of Minnesota. Peter J. Turnbaugh, Ph.D., is a Bauer fellow in the FAS Center for Systems Biology at Harvard University. Since 2004, his research has focused on the trillions of microbes that colonize our adult bodies. This human “micro- biome” encodes metabolic capacities that remain largely unexplored but include the degradation of otherwise indigestible components of our diet. Dr. Turnbaugh and his research group combine metagenomics, anaerobic microbiology, and gnotobiotic (germ-free and colonized) mouse systems to study the diversity and function of the human gut microbiome. This work
OCR for page 168
168 THE HUMAN MICROBIOME, DIET, AND HEALTH has focused primarily on the interactions among host diet, energy balance, and the gut microbiome, leading to a new model for the role that microbes can play in nutrition and obesity. Currently, his team is focusing on the metabolism of orally administered therapeutic drugs by the distal gut mi- crobiome. He received a B.A. in biochemistry, biophysics, and molecular biology from Whitman College and a Ph.D. in microbial genomics from Washington University in St. Louis. Johan van Hylckama Vlieg, Ph.D., is scientific director of gut microbiology and probiotics at Danone Research Center, Palaiseau, France, and head of the Science Group Gut Microbiology and Probiotics at Danone Research. He has more than 10 years of professional experience in running research programs at Danone Research, NIZO food research, Top Institute Food and Nutrition, and the Kluyver Centre for Genomics of Industrial Fermen- tation. He is author or co-author on more than 50 peer-reviewed publica- tions and co-inventor on 5 patent applications on lactic acid bacteria for food and health applications. He has a Ph.D. in molecular microbiology. James Versalovic, M.D., Ph.D., is head of the Department of Pathology, chief of the Pathology Service, and director of the Texas Children’s Micro- biome Center. He serves as the Milton J. Finegold Professor of Pathology and Immunology and also is professor of pediatrics, molecular and human genetics, and molecular virology and microbiology at Baylor College of Medicine (BCM). He is co-director of the medical scientist (M.D.-Ph.D.) training program at BCM. He pursued clinical pathology and microbiology residency training at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School. Dr. Versalovic is board certified in clinical pathology and molecular genetic pathology. He is editor-in-chief of the Manual of Clinical Micro biology and editor of Therapeutic Microbiology: Probiotics and Related Strategies. As a principal investigator, his primary research interests include the human microbiome, probiotics, medical and molecular microbiology, innate immunity, digestive diseases, and gastrointestinal physiology. His research program is supported by NIH (R01 and Roadmap funding). Dr. Versalovic has authored 88 primary manuscripts, 30 book chapters, and 2 patents. He received the Lansky Award as a national leader in pathology under the age of 45 from the College of American Pathologists Foundation. He has also received the BioGaia Ivan Casas Probiotics Research Award and the BCM Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Distinguished Alum- nus Award. He received his M.D. with honors and his Ph.D. in cellular and molecular biology at BCM. Jennifer Russo Wortman, M.S., is director of microbial informatics and is re- sponsible for oversight of the bioinformatics, genome analysis, and software
OCR for page 169
APPENDIX B 169 engineering teams that support microbial genome research in the Genome Sequencing and Analysis Platform at the Broad Institute. Ms. Wortman has worked as a scientist and manager in the field of genomic research for the past decade, coordinating the work of scientists and engineers in both corporate and academic settings. Her areas of expertise are genome anno tation, comparative genome analysis, bioinformatics tool development, and large-scale data management. Additionally, she has made significant contri- butions to the published genome analyses of the fruit fly, human, mouse, and mosquito as well as multiple pathogenic fungi and parasites. Prior to joining the Broad Institute, Ms. Wortman was the associate director of bioinfor- matics at the Institute for Genome Sciences at the University of Maryland, School of Medicine, where she was the co– rincipal investigator of the p H uman Microbiome Project’s Data Analysis and Coordination Center and the spergillus Genome Database project. That followed 5 years at The In- A stitute for Genomic Research (TIGR) at JCVI, where she was responsible for the annotation and analysis of all eukaryotic genome projects and contrib- uted to infrastructure and tool development for early metagenomics projects. Vincent B. Young, Ph.D., M.D., is an associate professor in the Department of Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases Division, and the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Michigan Medical School. His research is directed at understanding the role of bacteria that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and how they influence the health status of the host. Researchers in Dr. Young’s lab study the role of what would traditionally be considered “pathogenic bacteria” in gastrointestinal (GI) illness. In addition, they also examine how the population structure of in- digenous GI microbiota can influence host-pathogen interaction and how changes in the community structure of indigenous microbiota can lead to pathogenic states. This research is being conducted both with material from human subjects and with animal models of disease. Dr. Young received his B.S. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and his M.D. and Ph.D. from Stanford University. He completed his clinical training in in- ternal medicine and infectious diseases at Massachusetts General Hospital.
OCR for page 170