Goldenberg, R. L., J. C. Hauth, and W. W. Andrews. 2000. Intrauterine infection and preterm delivery. New England Journal of Medicine 342(20):1500-1507.

Gough, E., H. Shaikh, and A. R. Manges. 2011. Systematic review of intestinal microbiota transplantation (fecal bacteriotherapy) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Clinical Infectious Diseases 53(10):994-1002.

Hajishengallis, G., S. Liang, M. A. Payne, A. Hashim, R. Jotwani, M. A. Eskan, M. L. McIntosh, A. Alsam, K. L. Kirkwood, J. D. Lambris, R. P. Darveau, and M. A. Curtis. 2011. Low-abundance biofilm species orchestrates inflammatory periodontal disease through the commensal microbiota and complement. Cell Host Microbe 10(5):497-506.

Koenig, J. E., A. Spor, N. Scalfone, A. D. Fricker, J. Stombaugh, R. Knight, L. T. Angenent, and R. E. Ley. 2011. Succession of microbial consortia in the developing infant gut microbiome. PNAS 108(Suppl 1):4578-4585.

Mai, V., C. M. Young, M. Ukhanova, X. Wang, Y. Sun, G. Casella, D. Theriaque, N. Li, R. Sharma, M. Hudak, and J. Neu. 2011. Fecal microbiota in premature infants prior to necrotizing enterocolitis. PLoS ONE 6(6):e20647.

Maroo, S., and J. T. Lamont. 2006. Recurrent Clostridium difficile. Gastroenterology 130(4): 1311-1316.

Mshvildadze, M., J. Neu, J. Shuster, D. Theriaque, N. Li, and V. Mai. 2010. Intestinal microbial ecology in premature infants assessed with non-culture-based techniques. Journal of Pediatrics 156(1):20-25.

Nanthakumar, N. N., R. D. Fusunyan, I. Sanderson, and W. A. Walker. 2000. Inflammation in the developing human intestine: A possible pathophysiologic contribution to necrotizing enterocolitis. PNAS 97(11):6043-6048.

Neu, J., and J. Rushing. 2011. Cesarean versus vaginal delivery: Long-term infant outcomes and the hygiene hypothesis. Clinics in Perinatology 38(2):321-331.

Neu, J., and W. A. Walker. 2011. Medical progress: Necrotizing enterocolitis. New England Journal of Medicine 364(3):255-264.

Palmer, C., E. M. Bik, D. B. DiGiulio, D. A. Relman, and P. O. Brown. 2007. Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota. PLoS Biology 5(7):e177.

Preidis, G. A., and J. Versalovic. 2009. Targeting the human microbiome with antibiotics, probiotics, and prebiotics: Gastroenterology enters the metagenomics era. Gastroenterology 136(6):2015-2031.

Reeves, A. E., C. M. Theriot, I. L. Bergin, G. B. Huffnagle, P. D. Schloss, and V. B. Young. 2011. The interplay between microbiome dynamics and pathogen dynamics in a murine model of Clostridium difficile infection. Gut Microbes 2(3):145-158.

Reeves, A. E., M. J. Koenigsknecht, I. L. Bergin, and V. B. Young. 2012. Suppression of Clostridium difficile in the gastrointestinal tract of germ-free mice inoculated with a murine lachnospiraceae isolate. Infection and Immunity 80(11):3786-3794.

Socransky, S. S., A. D. Haffajee, M. A. Cugini, C. Smith, and R. L. Kent, Jr. 1998. Microbial complexes in subgingival plaque. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 25(2):134-144.

Vaarala, O., M. A. Atkinson, and J. Neu. 2008. The “perfect storm” for type 1 diabetes: The complex interplay between intestinal microbiota, gut permeability, and mucosal immunity. Diabetes 57(10):2555-2562.

Yoshioka, H., A. Yoshimura, T. Kaneko, D. T. Golenbock, and Y. Hara. 2008. Analysis of the activity to induce toll-like receptor (tlr)2- and tlr4-mediated stimulation of supragingival plaque. Journal of Periodontology 79(5):920-928.

Zelkha, S. A., R. W. Freilich, and S. Amar. 2010. Periodontal innate immune mechanisms relevant to atherosclerosis and obesity. Periodontology 2000 54(1):207-221.

Zijnge, V., M. B. van Leeuwen, J. E. Degener, F. Abbas, T. Thurnheer, R. Gmur, and H. J. Harmsen. 2010. Oral biofilm architecture on natural teeth. PLoS ONE 5(2):e9321.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement