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Glossary Allogenic stem cell transplantation A procedure in which a person receives stem cells from a genetically similar but not identical donor. (1). Blastocyst: A preimplantation embryo of about 150 cells produced by cell division following fertilization. The blastocyst is a sphere made up of an outer layer of cells (the trophoblast), a fluid-filled cavity (the blastocoel), and a cluster of cells on the interior (the inner cell mass). (2) Differentiation: The process whereby an unspecialized embryonic cell acquires the features of a specialized cell such as a heart, liver, or muscle cell. Differentiation is controlled by the interaction of a cell’s genes with the physical and chemical conditions outside the cell, usually through cellular signaling pathways. (3) Embryo: In humans, the developing organism from the time of fertilization until the end of the eighth week of gestation, when it is called a fetus. (4) Embryonic stem cells: Primitive (undifferentiated) cells that are derived from preimplantation- stage embryos, are capable of dividing without differentiating for a prolonged period in culture, and are known to develop into cells and tissues of the three primary germ layers. (5) Human embryonic stem cell (hESC): A type of pluripotent stem cells derived from early stage human embryos, up to and including the blastocyst stage, that are capable of dividing without differentiating for a prolonged period in culture, and are known to develop into cells and tissues of the three primary germ layers. (6) Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) cell: A type of pluripotent stem cell, similar to an embryonic stem cell, formed by the introduction of certain embryonic genes into a somatic cell. (7) Intellectual Property (IP): Intangible property that is the result of creativity, such as patents, copyrights etc. (8) PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS GL-1

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GL-2 THE CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE FOR REGENERATIVE MEDICINE Investigational New Drug (IND): A new drug or biological drug that is used in a clinical investigation. (9) Neurodegenerative disorder: A type of disease in which cells of the central nervous system stop working or die. Neurodegenerative disorders usually get worse over time and have no cure. They may be genetic or be caused by a tumor or stroke. Neurodegenerative disorders also occur in people who drink large amounts of alcohol or are exposed to certain viruses or toxins. (10) Pluripotent: The state of a single cell that is capable of differentiating into all tissues of an organism, but not alone capable of sustaining full organismal development. (11) Regenerative medicine: The process of creating living, functional tissues to repair or replace tissue or organ function lost due to age, disease, damage, or congenital defects. This can be done through a variety of approaches including the replacement of tissue function with synthetic constructs (artificial organs) and using cellular therapies such as stem cells or genetically modified cells to generate new tissues and organs. (12) Request for Application (RFA): An RFA is a formal statement that solicits grant or cooperative agreement applications in a well-defined scientific area to accomplish specific program objectives. An RFA indicates the estimated amount of funds set aside for the competition, the estimated number of awards to be made, whether cost sharing is required, and the application submission date(s). (13) Somatic cell: Any body cell other than gametes (egg or sperm); sometimes referred to as “adult” cells. See also Gamete. (14) Stem cells: Cells with the ability to divide for indefinite periods in culture and to give rise to specialized cells. (15) Venture Capital: investment in a project in which there is a substantial element of risk, a new or expanding business. (16) REFERENCES (1) The National Cancer Institute. 2012. NCI dictionary of cancer terms. http://www.cancer.gov/dictionary?cdrid=270732 (accessed August 23, 2012). (2) The National Institutes of Health. 2011. Resource for stem cell research: Glossary. http://stemcells.nih.gov/StemCells/Templates/StemCellContentPage.aspx?NRMODE=Published&NRNO DEGUID={3C35BAB6-0FE6-4C4E-95F2- 2CB61B58D96D}&NRORIGINALURL=%2finfo%2fglossary.asp&NRCACHEHINT=NoModifyGuest# blastocyst (accessed March 16, 2012). (3) The National Institutes of Health. 2011. Resource for stem cell research: Glossary. http://stemcells.nih.gov/StemCells/Templates/StemCellContentPage.aspx?NRMODE=Published&NRNO PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

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GLOSSARY GL-3 DEGUID={3C35BAB6-0FE6-4C4E-95F2- 2CB61B58D96D}&NRORIGINALURL=%2finfo%2fglossary.asp&NRCACHEHINT=NoModifyGuest# differentiation (accessed March 16, 2012). (4) The National Institutes of Health. 2011. Resource for stem cell research: Glossary. http://stemcells.nih.gov/StemCells/Templates/StemCellContentPage.aspx?NRMODE=Published&NRNO DEGUID={3C35BAB6-0FE6-4C4E-95F2- 2CB61B58D96D}&NRORIGINALURL=%2finfo%2fglossary.asp&NRCACHEHINT=NoModifyGuest# embryo (accessed March 16, 2012). (5) The National Institutes of Health. 2011. Resource for stem cell research: Glossary. http://stemcells.nih.gov/StemCells/Templates/StemCellContentPage.aspx?NRMODE=Published&NRNO DEGUID={3C35BAB6-0FE6-4C4E-95F2- 2CB61B58D96D}&NRORIGINALURL=%2finfo%2fglossary.asp&NRCACHEHINT=NoModifyGuest# embryonicsc (accessed March 16, 2012). (6) The National Institutes of Health. 2011. Resource for stem cell research: Glossary. http://stemcells.nih.gov/StemCells/Templates/StemCellContentPage.aspx?NRMODE=Published&NRNO DEGUID={3C35BAB6-0FE6-4C4E-95F2- 2CB61B58D96D}&NRORIGINALURL=%2finfo%2fglossary.asp&NRCACHEHINT=NoModifyGuest# hesc (accessed March 16, 2012). (7) The National Institutes of Health. 2011. Resource for stem cell research: Glossary. http://stemcells.nih.gov/StemCells/Templates/StemCellContentPage.aspx?NRMODE=Published&NRNO DEGUID={3C35BAB6-0FE6-4C4E-95F2- 2CB61B58D96D}&NRORIGINALURL=%2finfo%2fglossary.asp&NRCACHEHINT=NoModifyGuest# ips (accessed March 16, 2012). (8) Oxford Dictionaries. 2012. Intellectual property. http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/intellectual%2Bproperty (accessed August 23, 2012). (9) The National Institutes of Health. 2012. Glossary & acronym list. http://grants.nih.gov/grants/glossary.htm#I (accessed August 23, 2012). (10) National Cancer Institute. 2012. Dictionary of cancer terms. http://www.cancer.gov/dictionary?cdrid=687218 (accessed March 16, 2012). (11) The National Institute of Health. 2011. Resource for stem cell research: Glossary. http://stemcells.nih.gov/StemCells/Templates/StemCellContentPage.aspx?NRMODE=Published&NRNO DEGUID={3C35BAB6-0FE6-4C4E-95F2- 2CB61B58D96D}&NRORIGINALURL=%2finfo%2fglossary.asp&NRCACHEHINT=NoModifyGuest# pluripotent (accessed March 16, 2012). (12) European Science Foundation. 2012. Regenerative Medicine (REMEDIC) http://www.esf.org/nc/activities/research-networking-programmes/medical-sciences-emrc/current-esf- research-networking-programmes/regenerative-medicine-remedic.html (accessed November 15, 2012). PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

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GL-4 THE CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE FOR REGENERATIVE MEDICINE (13) The National Institutes of Health. 2012. Glossary & acronym list. http://grants.nih.gov/grants/glossary.htm#R (accessed August 23, 2012) (14) The National Institutes of Health. 2011. Resource for stem cell research: Glossary. http://stemcells.nih.gov/StemCells/Templates/StemCellContentPage.aspx?NRMODE=Published&NRNO DEGUID={3C35BAB6-0FE6-4C4E-95F2- 2CB61B58D96D}&NRORIGINALURL=%2finfo%2fglossary.asp&NRCACHEHINT=NoModifyGuest# Somaticcell (accessed March 16, 2012). (15) The National Institute of Health. 2011. Resource for stem cell research: Glossary. http://stemcells.nih.gov/StemCells/Templates/StemCellContentPage.aspx?NRMODE=Published&NRNO DEGUID={3C35BAB6-0FE6-4C4E-95F2- 2CB61B58D96D}&NRORIGINALURL=%2finfo%2fglossary.asp&NRCACHEHINT=NoModifyGuest# stemcells (accessed March 16, 2012). (16) Oxford Dictionaries. 2012. Venture capital. http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/venture%2Bcapital (accessed August 23, 2012). PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS