federal projects, including a series of projects to assist the Congressional Research Service in the analysis of national health care reform proposals and a major series of projects to design and implement the Federal Employees Retirement System. He has also directed a number of comparisons of benefits plans, in the United States and worldwide, for large employers. He was co-chair of the 2004 Technical Review Panel on the Medicare Trustees Report. He is currently chair of the Medicare Steering Committee of the American Academy of Actuaries, a fellow of the Society of Actuaries, and a member of the Academy of Actuaries. He participated in the Society of Actuaries committees that produced the UP94, GAR94, and RP2000 mortality tables and chaired the Academy of Actuaries Task Force on Medical Savings Account. He received a B.A. in mathematics from Franklin and Marshall College in 1963.

Emmett B. Keeler is a professor at the Pardee RAND Graduate School, an adjunct professor at the School of Public Health at the University of California, Los Angeles, and senior mathematician at RAND. In the pathbreaking RAND Health Insurance Experiment, he investigated the theoretical and empirical effects of alternative health insurance plans on episodes of treatment and on health outcomes. The resulting microsimulation model has been used to study spending and insurance choice. Recently, he led a large study to evaluate a new model for helping people with chronic diseases manage their health better. He served on the National Research Council panel that produced the 2010 report Accounting for Health and Health Care: Approaches to Measuring the Sources and Costs of Their Improvement. He has taught at Harvard University and the University of Chicago while on leave from RAND. He is the author or co-author of numerous refereed articles and four books. His research interests are in cost-effectiveness analysis, insurance design, health economics, and health services research. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and in 2003 was named distinguished investigator by AcademyHealth for his contribution to the field of health services research. He has a B.A. in mathematics from Oberlin College in Ohio and a Ph.D. in mathematics from Harvard University.

Willard G. Manning is a professor in both the Harris School of Public Policy Studies and the Department of Health Studies, in the Division of the Biological Sciences, at the University of Chicago. His primary area of interest is the effects of health insurance on health care and health. He has studied the demand for various health services under both fee-for-service cost-sharing and prepaid insurance, as well as the impact on the appropriateness of care and health status. In recent work, he has examined the optimal insurance coverage for preventive care and treatment, considering



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