the trade-off between the costs from moral hazard and the gains from risk-pooling across medical services and over time in health insurance. He has also examined the health effects of insuring the formerly uninsured when the near-elderly become Medicare-eligible at age 65. He has examined statistical, measurement, and economic issues in modeling the use of health services and health care expenditures. His research interests further include the economics of poor health habits, such as smoking and heavy drinking. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine. He has a B.S. from the California Institute of Technology and an M.A. and a Ph.D. in economics from Stanford University.

Wilhelmine D. Miller is a senior fellow with NORC at the University of Chicago and a lecturer in health policy at George Washington University (GW). She served as associate director of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Commission to Build a Healthier America at the GW School of Public Health and Health Services, overseeing the preparation of the 2009 report Beyond Health Care: New Directions to a Healthier America. Previously, she was a senior program officer at the Institute of Medicine, directing various committees that assessed the health, economic, and community consequences of uninsurance and that made recommendations to federal agencies for incorporating cost-effectiveness information in analyses of regulations addressing human health and safety risks. Her research interests include the uses of cost-effectiveness analysis in health care, the ethical dimensions of resource allocation decisions to improve population health, and policies to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in health. Her degrees in health policy and management and political philosophy are from Harvard and Georgetown Universities, respectively.

Cathy Schoen is senior vice president for policy, research, and evaluation at the Commonwealth Fund in New York. She is a member of the fund’s executive management team and research director of its Commission on a High Performance Health System. Her work includes strategic oversight and management of surveys, research, and policy initiatives to track health system performance. From 1998 through 2005, she directed the Task Force on the Future of Health Insurance. Prior to joining the fund in 1995, she taught health economics at the University of Massachusetts (UMASS) School of Public Health and directed special projects at the UMASS Labor Relations and Research Center. Previously, she directed the Service Employees International Union’s research and policy department. In the late 1970s, she was on the staff of President Carter’s national health insurance task force, where she oversaw analysis and policy development. Prior to federal service, she was a research fellow at the Brookings Institution in Washington, DC. She has authored numerous publications on health policy

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