•  Does the organization document processes and outputs when metrics are desired? Are the metrics that are gathered appropriate to permitting an examination of the data and trends for making decisions about actions to take?

•  How do organizational decision makers perform judgments based on assessment of risk?

•  Is a record kept of anecdotes, which often communicate accomplishments better than quantitative metrics such as publications and patents?

•  Is the organization’s management assessed? Does the assessment ask staff how well management is performing? Are the senior managers technically competent? Does the organization have in place mechanisms to remove pathological managers who will not hire individuals more competent than themselves?

Are Adequate Resources Available to Support High-Quality Work?

John Sommerer noted that a vision without resources is a hallucination. He and Roy Levin emphasized that human capital is a fundamental resource and that innovation requires that researchers be given some latitude and discretion with respect to their projects. Workshop discussants identified the following questions:

•  How well does the organization support the education and development of staff?

•  How well does the personnel selection and assessment system provide and maintain good performance? Are there any constraints on the system (e.g., constraints imposed within the federal context)?

•  Are incentives in place to recognize individuals and teams?

•  Are there efforts within the organization to seek external recognition?

•  Does the organization promote teamwork? Does management connect with the team to discover talent, through social networking and an open-door policy?

•  Does management communicate with junior researchers?

•  As a measure of teamwork, are common cross-discipline terminologies used by the staff and the management?

•  Do the staff members possess both technical and social skills?

•  As a measure of organizational flexibility, how do the initial academic degrees of staff compare with their current work tasks?

•  How does the organization inspire stellar performers? Does the organization have a rigorous and transparent process of rewards and acknowledgments in which the staff have confidence and faith?

•  Does the organization have mechanisms for moving aside ossified individuals and those who block the performance of others—mechanisms whereby nonperformers can be flushed out?

•  Are “wild ducks” (brilliant oddballs) identified and embraced?

•  Are rewards other than money available to staff?

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