LYLE H. SCHWARTZ (NAE) retired from government service in 2004, after 18 years as a member of the Senior Executive Service. In his last position, as Director of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), he guided the management of the entire basic research investment for the U.S. Air Force. He led a staff of more than 200 scientists, engineers, and support people in Arlington, Virginia, and two foreign technology offices, in London and Tokyo. As Director, he was charged with maintaining the technological superiority of the Air Force. Each year, AFOSR selects, sponsors, and manages revolutionary basic research relevant to Air Force needs. The investment of AFOSR in basic research programs is distributed across 300 academic institutions, 145 industry contracts, and more than 150 research efforts within the Air Force Research Laboratory. Prior to becoming AFOSR’s Director, Dr. Schwartz directed the AFOSR's Aerospace and Materials Sciences Directorate. From 1984 to 1997, he served as Director of the Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. In that position, he managed programs in both structural and functional materials, with research emphasis ranging from basic to applied. From 1989 to 1997, he led the multiagency materials research coordination committee for the Office of Science and Technology Policy, and was responsible for the development of the Presidential Initiative on Advanced Materials and Processing launched in 1991. Previously, he taught and served as Director of the Materials Research Center at Northwestern University. He has written more than 85 technical papers and is a co-author of two textbooks in materials science and engineering. He received his B.S. in science engineering and Ph.D. in materials science from Northwestern University.