that are changing at the fastest rate during adolescence may be the most vulnerable. If those areas overlap with the circuits that are implicated in anxiety, drug abuse, or depression, for example, it may provide clues to the points of vulnerability in that circuit at that time. These are still basic research questions.

Markou noted that people who start tobacco smoking in adolescence have the hardest time quitting. Therefore, it would be important to extend animal models of addiction to this developmental stage as well.

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