the data from all the surveillance measures that are available to the user. All datasets and specific source references are embedded in the data spreadsheets that are available online with the report and the software.

To ensure best estimates for each disease and associated vaccine, the data inputs were verified and standardized to the 2009 U.S. and South African populations. Disease burden data were verified internally within the model and also against existing estimates. Number of deaths and cases were standardized to the 2009 U.S. and South African populations using estimates for each age group (available from life tables) to obtain the data needed for the model in the following four age groups: less than 1 year old, 1 to less than 20 years old, 20 to less than 65 years old, and 65 years or older.

Next, given the number of cases and deaths within a population, the incidence and case fatality rates were calculated using the following formula: Incidence = (number of cases/total population)*100,000, and Case fatality rate = (number of deaths/number of cases). The calculated incidence and case fatality rates are checked with original number of deaths and cases, followed by verification using existing publications. To the extent possible, costs were also standardized to 2009 U.S. dollars; however, in many instances cost estimates from another year were used.

Standard Data Sources

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):CDC is a reliable source of disease- and vaccine-specific information within the United States. Its surveillance systems follow national guidelines within its scope of work to maintain standardized data collection. For instance, two surveillance systems collect information about rotavirus disease and the rotavirus vaccine: the National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System and the New Vaccine Surveillance Network. Similarly, there are multiple surveillance systems for influenza, including FLU VIEW (a weekly influenza surveillance report) and International Influenza Surveillance. Information from surveillance systems on mortality and morbidity are available through the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). The MMWR series, prepared by the CDC, contains disease burden data from 1990 to present.

World Health Organization (WHO):The WHO Global Health Observatory (GHO) data repository provides epidemiologic and health indicator data for WHO’s 194 member states. The GHO data repository contains more than 50 datasets on priority health topics, including the mortality and burden of diseases, immunization, and health systems. Annual summaries of health-related data are also available for member states. WHO Choosing



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