natural immune control, and the identification of vaccine candidates that are slated for clinical trials. He has served on advisory panels for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology. Carlson received his B.A. from Dartmouth, where he was awarded the top senior thesis prizes in both biology and computer science, and his Ph.D. in computer science from the University of Washington, where he was awarded the university’s distinguished dissertation award and was a finalist for the U.S. Council of Graduate Schools’ dissertation award for his work on HIV adaptation.

Paul Citron, M.S.E.E., retired as vice president of technology policy and academic relations from Medtronic, Inc., after a 32-year career there. His previous positions there included vice president of science and technology, vice president of ventures technology, and both vice president and director of applied concepts research. He is currently a senior fellow at the William J. von Liebig Center for Entrepreneurism and Technology and an adjunct professor in the Department of Bioengineering at the University of California, San Diego. Citron received a B.S. in electrical engineering from Drexel University and an M.S. in electrical engineering from the University of Minnesota. He has authored many publications, has served on several committees of the National Academies, and holds several medical device pacing-related patents. Citron was elected a founding fellow of the American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering and has twice won the American College of Cardiology Governor’s Award for Excellence and was inducted as a fellow of the Medtronic Bakken Society, the company’s highest technical honor. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering.

Rita Colwell, Ph.D., is a distinguished university professor both at the University of Maryland at College Park and at Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health. Her interests are focused on global infectious diseases, water, and health, and she is currently developing an international network to address emerging infectious diseases and water issues, including safe drinking water for both the developed and developing world. Colwell has shown how changes in climate, adverse weather events, shifts in ocean circulation, and other ecological processes can create conditions that allow infectious diseases to spread. In addition to her academic roles, Colwell is senior adviser and chairperson emeritus of Canon U.S. Life Sciences and chairman and president of CosmosID, which is exploring the potential applications of molecular diagnostic technologies to the field of life sciences. Colwell served as the 11th director of the National Science



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