SMART Vaccines framework showing the computational and value submodels that help produce the SMART Score for various vaccine candidates under consideration.

NOTE: DALYs = disability-adjusted life years; QALYs = quality-adjusted life years.

the overall value should be zero. If there is a 50 percent chance of licensure, then the expected score should be 0.50 times the overall SMART Score. To reflect this multiplicative impact of the licensure attribute, this value is now elicited from the user after the SMART Scores are produced for the vaccines being compared. Thus, if the resulting SMART Score for a specific vaccine candidate is calculated as 70, but the user-defined likelihood of successful licensure of that vaccine over a 10-year period is 50 percent, then the SMART Score is set to 35 to reflect the product of the original score and the probability of licensure. Using this multiplier is optional for the user, but it is helpful for comparative assessment when the probabilities of licensure success differ significantly across vaccine candidates.

SMART Vaccines 1.0 uses the rank-order centroid method (Barron and Barrett, 1996) (detailed in the 2012 report, Chapter 2) to obtain quick initial weights, but the redesigned software interface allows dynamic adjustment of these weights (using slider bars) to obtain a final weighting leading up to the SMART Score. This adjustment process uses the so-called “swing weighting” method, in which the relative effect of an attribute is determined by the effect of changing the attribute level from the worst one to the best one.

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