Byass, de Savigny, and Lopez also described a typology of data sources that can potentially contribute to national health information (see Table 7-1).

TABLE 7-1 Typology of Data Sources That Potentially Contribute to National Health Information

Level Model Sample Approach Examples
National National census All Complete cross-section Most countries
Ongoing registration All Complete longitudinal Industrialised countries
Sentinel districts 1-2% of population Longitudinal sample China
Cluster surveys Cluster sample size Repeatable cross-section DHS surveys, WHO-SAGE
Fixed panel surveys Cohort sample size Longitudinal cohort Millennium Cohort Study
At health facilities All or sample of facilities Self-selected group Annual health reports
Provincial Complete population All Complete longitudinal In registered countries
Cluster surveys Cluster sample size Cross-section Vaccine coverage
At health facilities All or sample of facilities Self-selected group Annual health reports
Local area Individual surveillance Defined area population Complete in defined area INDEPTH centers
One-time surveys Survey sample size Cross-sectional  
Specific research Context- dependent Specific issues of interest  

SOURCE: Byass, de Savigny, and Lopez (2011).

This session also included a discussion of how lessons learned to date from HIV surveillance efforts might be applied. Thomas Rehle described the key features of



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