second-generation HIV surveillance, which include (1) combining survey methods for greater explanatory power; (2) developing strategic partnership between surveillance and program evaluation; (3) a shift in emphasis toward measuring incidence rather than focusing mainly on prevalence; and (4) recognition of biological (HIV, AIDS, sexually transmitted infections) and behavioral surveillance as integral components adapted to the stage and type of the epidemic. These features imply a surveillance that is more focused on subpopulations at high risk of infection and that has an emphasis on trends over time.

Rehle further described the new South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES). It combines questionnaires with physical examinations and biomarker testing, combines longitudinal and cross-sectional design elements, and is designed to make it possible for health and nutritional status to be explored in much greater detail than was previously possible.

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