senior science adviser to the director general. He also chairs the Health and Medical Research Council of Queensland and is a member of Australia’s Medical Services Advisory Committee. His principal research interests are analysis of mortality data burden of disease methods and applications and quantification of the health effects of tobacco, particularly in developing countries. He has published widely on mortality analysis and causes of death, including the impact of the global tobacco epidemic, and on the global descriptive epidemiology of major diseases, injuries, and risk factors. He is a foreign associate of the Institute of Medicine. He has an M.S. from Purdue University and a Ph.D. in epidemiology from the Australian National University, Canberra.

Jane Menken is professor of sociology and director of the Institute of Behavioral Science at the University of Colorado. Prior to her current position, she was the UPS Foundation professor in the social sciences at the University of Pennsylvania, where she was also served as director of the Population Studies Center. Her main area of research is fertility. She has developed mathematical models of reproduction and analytic techniques and has carried out studies on female sterility, fertility determinants in Bangladesh, and teenage pregnancy and childbearing in the United States. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine. She has served as a member of the board of directors of the Alan Guttmacher Institute and the advisory committee to the director of the National Institutes of Health. She has a B.A. in mathematics from the University of Pennsylvania, an M.S. in biostatistics from the Harvard School of Public Health, and a Ph.D. in sociology and demography from Princeton University.

Julie Knoll Rajaratnam is assistant professor of global health at the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington, where she leads the mortality estimation methods work. Her work has included producing age-and sex-specific mortality estimates for more than 200 countries for the Global Burden of Disease 2005 project. She has also been worked on child injuries in Baltimore, social isolation and its effect on depressive symptoms in mothers with young children, measurement of neighborhood characteristics in the field of maternal/child health, the willingness to pay for an HIV/AIDS vaccine in Uganda, and school and neighborhood variation in youth violence in Baltimore. She has a B.A. in biology from Macalester College and a Ph.D. in public health from the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Stephen Tollman is professor of community health in the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Witwatersrand, South Africa. He leads the Health and Population Division of the University’s School of Public Health and directs the Agincourt community demographic and health surveillance system. His work covers numerous aspects of population and health in Africa. He has a Ph.D. in epidemiology and public health from Umeå University, Sweden.

Stig Wall is professor of epidemiology and health care research at the University of Umeå, Sweden, where has served as director of its Centre for Global Health Research and founded its Division of Epidemiology and Public Health Services. His main research areas are epidemiology and international health, environmental and social epidemiology,

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