NRC studies, including the Committee on Review of the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts and the Panel to Review Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFSOR) Proposals in Propulsion for 2003-2005.

LEONARD H. CAVENY is an aerospace consultant and former director of science and technology for the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization. His previous experience also includes service as the deputy director of innovative science and technology for the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, staff specialist for the Office of the Deputy Undersecretary for Research and Advanced Technology for the Department of Defense, and program manager for propulsion and energetics for the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR). From 1969 to 1980, as a senior professional staff of Princeton University’s Aerospace and Mechanical Sciences Department, he guided graduate student research and served as principal investigator. Dr. Caveny’s expertise and consulting include solid rocket propulsion, aerothermochemistry flight experiments, electric propulsion, space solar power, diagnostics of reacting flows, combustion, propellants, refractory materials, and aeroacoustics. He is a fellow of AIAA. He earned his B.S. and M.S. in mechanical engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology and his Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from the University of Alabama. He served on several NRC committees, including the Committee for the Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space, the Committee for the Review of NASA’s Pioneering Revolutionary Technology Program, and as chair of the Panel to Review Air Force Office of Scientific Research Proposals in Propulsion.

ROBERT S. DICKMAN is the executive director of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. He entered the Air Force in 1966; his 34-year active duty military career spanned the space business from basic research in particle physics to command of the 45th Space Wing and director of the Eastern Range at Cape Canaveral, Florida. General Dickman served as the Air Force’s director of space programs, the Department of Defense Space Architect, and the senior military officer at the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO). He retired from active duty in 2000 as a major general. From 2002 to 2005, he was appointed as Under Secretary of the Air Force’s Deputy for Military Space. He is a member of the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee and has served on the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board and the NRO’s Technical Advisory Group. He is a fellow of the AIAA. General Dickman earned a B.S. in physics, an M.S. in space physics, and an M.S. in management and is a distinguished graduate of the Air Command and Staff College and the Naval War College.

MARK K. JACOBS is a senior systems engineer with more than 25 years of experience assessing NASA science mission and instrument advanced development requirements and life cycle costs. Mr. Jacobs has participated in numerous NASA announcements of opportunity reviews supporting the Explorer, Discovery, Mars Scout, New Frontiers, and Earth Ventures programs, among others. His past experience also includes providing cost analysis support to NASA Headquarters for the Nuclear Systems Initiative, Living With a Star, Cassini, Outer Planets, Mars Exploration, and other programs. He also participates in various NASA advanced technology assessments related to instruments, spacecraft, launch vehicles, and operations. Mr. Jacobs is the author of several cost analysis book chapters and received the Distinguished Service Award for 1994-2000 contributions to the AIAA Space Systems Technical Committee. He earned his B.S. in metallurgical engineering from the University of Wisconsin.

THOMAS J. LEE is founder and president of Lee & Associates, LLC. The firm’s primary emphasis has been in support of NASA space systems development programs, including Student Launch Initiative, Next Generation Launch Technology, FASTRAC Engine, Crew Launch Vehicle, space shuttle, Constellation, Space Launch System, and Commercial Operational Transportation Systems. He served as special assistant to the NASA administrator for access to space where he led NASA’s efforts in defining and planning the technology and development program for the future to help the United States retain its leadership in space. Other positions held at NASA since 1980 were as deputy director and later as director of the Marshall Space Flight Center. Mr. Lee began his professional career in 1958 as an aeronautical research engineer with the U.S. Army Ballistic Missile Agency at the Redstone Arsenal. He transferred to Marshall when it was formed in 1960 as a systems engineer with the Center’s Centaur Resident Manager Office. From 1963 to 1965, he was resident project manager for the Pegasus Meteoroid Detection Satellite Project, and from 1965 to 1969 he was chief of the Saturn Program Resident Office at the Kennedy



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