being, and cultural influences on well-being. He has served as president of the International Society of Quality of Life Studies, the Society of Personality and Social Psychology, and the International Positive Psychology Association. Among his many awards are an honorary doctorate from the University of Berlin and a distinguished scientist award from the International Society of Quality of Life Studies. He won the distinguished researcher award from the International Society of Quality of Life Studies, the first Gallup academic leadership award, and the Jack Block award for personality psychology. He has a B.A. degree in psychology from the California State University of Fresno and a Ph.D. degree in psychology from the University of Washington.

PAUL H. DOLAN is a professor of behavioral science in the Department of Social Policy at the London School of Economics and Political Science. He is also chief academic adviser on economic appraisal for the Government Economic Service in the United Kingdom. Previously, he held academic posts at the universities of York, Newcastle, Sheffield, and Imperial, and he has been a visiting scholar at Princeton University. His research interests focus primarily on developing measures of subjective well-being that can be used in policy, particularly in the valuation of nonmarket goods and in extending the ways in which the lessons from behavioral economics can be used to understand and change individual behavior. He is a recipient of the Philip Leverhulme Prize in economics—awarded by the Philip Leverhulme Trust in the United Kingdom—for his contribution to health economics. He has served on many expert panels for various government departments in the United Kingdom. He has M.Sc. and D.Phil. degrees in economics from York University

CAROL L. GRAHAM is College Park professor in the School of Public Policy at the University of Maryland and senior fellow in economic studies and Charles Robinson chair in foreign policy studies at the Brookings Institution. Previously, she was codirector of the Center on Social and Economic Dynamics at the Brookings Institution and research fellow at the Institute for the Study of Labor. She has served as special advisor to the vice president of the Inter-American Development Bank, as a visiting fellow in the office of the chief economist of the World Bank, and as a consultant to the International Monetary Fund and the Harvard Institute for International Development. Her research focuses on public health, poverty, inequality, economics of happiness, and measures of subjective well-being. She has an A.B. degree from Princeton University, an M.A. degree in international economics from the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies, and a Ph.D. degree in political economy from Oxford University.

V. JOSEPH HOTZ is the arts and sciences professor of economics in the Department of Economics at Duke University, research affiliate at the Institute for Research on Poverty at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, research fellow at the Institute for the Study of Labor, and research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research. He also serves as a research affiliate at the National Poverty Center, the Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, and the University of Michigan. Previously, he served as visiting scholar at the Cowles Foundation, Yale University, and at the Russell Sage Foundation and as a professor and chair of the Department of Economics at the University of California, Los Angeles. His areas of specialization include labor economics, population economics, and applied econometrics. He has a B.A. degree from the

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