Report of a Workshop on Big Data

Committee for Science and Technology Challenges to
U.S. National Security Interests

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                                   OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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Report of a Workshop on Big Data Committee for Science and Technology Challenges to U.S. National Security Interests Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 FIFTH STREET, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract HHM402-10-D-0036 between the Defense Intelligence Agency and the National Academy of Sciences. Any views or observations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number: 13: 978-0-309-26688-8 International Standard Book Number: 10: 0-309-26688-2 Limited copies of this report are available from the Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001; (202) 334-2400. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGES TO U.S. NATIONAL SECURITY INTERESTS J. JEROME HOLTON, Tauri Group, Chair EDWARD M. GREITZER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Vice Chair BRIAN BALLARD, APX Labs KENNETH I. BERNS, University of Florida College of Medicine ANN N. CAMPBELL, Sandia National Laboratories DEAN R. COLLINS, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (Retired) SHARON C. GLOTZER, University of Michigan J.C. HERZ, Batchtags, LLC KENNETH A. KRESS, KBK Consulting, Inc. DARRELL LONG, University of California, Santa Cruz JULIE J.C.H. RYAN, George Washington University JANET A. THERIANOS, Independent Consultant (USAF, retired) ELIAS TOWE, Carnegie Mellon University ALFONSO VELOSA III, Gartner, Inc. ELI YABLONOVITCH, University of California, Berkeley Staff TERRY JAGGERS, Lead DEPS Board Director DANIEL E.J. TALMAGE, JR., Study Director SARAH CAPOTE, Research Associate MARGUERITE SCHNEIDER, Administrative Coordinator DIONNA ALI, Senior Program Assistant CHRIS JONES, Financial Associate iv

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Preface The workshop described in this report is the first in a series of three workshops, held in early 2012 to further the ongoing engagement among the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Technology Insight—Gauge, Evaluate, and Review (TIGER) Standing Committee, the scientific and technical intelligence (S&TI) community, and the consumers of S&TI products. A restricted version of this report is available by contacting the Public Affairs Office of the sponsoring agency (Defense Intelligence Agency) directly. We express our appreciation to the members of the Committee for Science and Technology Challenges to U.S. National Security Interests for their contributions to the development of this report. We are also grateful for the active participation of many members of the technology community in the workshop, as well as to the sponsor for its support. The committee also expresses sincere appreciation for the support and assistance of the NRC staff, including Terry Jaggers, Daniel Talmage, Sarah Capote, Marguerite Schneider, Zeida Patmon, and Dionna Ali. J. Jerome Holton, Chair Edward Greitzer, Vice Chair Committee for Science and Technology Challenges to U.S. National Security Interests v

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Gilman Louie, Alsop Louie Partners, David Maddox (NAE), Consultant, Alton Romig (NAE), Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, and Mikhail Shapiro, University of California, Berkeley. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the views of individual participants, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Louis J. Lanzerotti (NAE), New Jersey Institute of Technology. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. vi

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Contents 1 MOTIVATION FOR THE WORKSHOP 1 2 FIRST-DAY PRESENTATIONS 3 Big Data Analytics, 3 Discussion of Big Data, 4 Big Data as Too Much Data, 4 Big Data as Ubiquitous Sensor Data, 4 Big Data as Data Fusion Challenges, 5 Big Data as Too Much of a Good Thing, 5 Big Data Feeds—1, 5 Computational Data, 6 Big Data Feeds—2, 6 Discussion of Vulnerabilities, 7 Data Discovery, 7 Social Networks, 8 3 SECOND-DAY DISCUSSION 9 Technical, 9 Temporal, 9 Personnel, 9 Blue Process, 10 Closing Remarks, 10 APPENDIXES A Committee Biographies 15 B Workshop Agenda and Participants 21 C Speaker Biographies 23 vii

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