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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 540 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Guidelines for Early-Opening-to-Traffic Portland Cement Concrete for Pavement Rehabilitation

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 2005 (Membership as of August 2005) OFFICERS Chair: John R. Njord, Executive Director, Utah DOT Vice Chair: Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS MICHAEL W. BEHRENS, Executive Director, Texas DOT ALLEN D. BIEHLER, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Vice President, Customer Service, Norfolk Southern Corporation and Subsidiaries, Atlanta, GA ANNE P. CANBY, President, Surface Transportation Policy Project, Washington, DC JOHN L. CRAIG, Director, Nebraska Department of Roads DOUGLAS G. DUNCAN, President and CEO, FedEx Freight, Memphis, TN NICHOLAS J. GARBER, Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville ANGELA GITTENS, Vice President, Airport Business Services, HNTB Corporation, Miami, FL GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, Director, Metrans Transportation Center, and Professor, School of Policy, Planning, and Development, USC, Los Angeles BERNARD S. GROSECLOSE, JR., President and CEO, South Carolina State Ports Authority SUSAN HANSON, Landry University Professor of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University JAMES R. HERTWIG, President, CSX Intermodal, Jacksonville, FL GLORIA J. JEFF, Director, Michigan DOT ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley HERBERT S. LEVINSON, Principal, Herbert S. Levinson Transportation Consultant, New Haven, CT SUE MCNEIL, Director and Professor, Urban Transportation Center, University of Illinois, Chicago MICHAEL MORRIS, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments CAROL A. MURRAY, Commissioner, New Hampshire DOT MICHAEL S. TOWNES, President and CEO, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin LINDA S. WATSON, Executive Director, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority MARION C. BLAKEY, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) JOSEPH H. BOARDMAN, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA (ex officio) GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, Chancellor, Polytechnic University, and Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering (ex officio) THOMAS H. COLLINS (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard (ex officio) JENNIFER L. DORN, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) JAMES J. EBERHARDT, Chief Scientist, Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies, U.S. Department of Energy (ex officio) EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads (ex officio) JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (ex officio) JOHN E. JAMIAN, Acting Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) EDWARD JOHNSON, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (ex officio) ASHOK G. KAVEESHWAR, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) RICK KOWALEWSKI, Deputy Director, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, U.S.DOT (ex officio) BRIGHAM MCCOWN, Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association (ex officio) MARY E. PETERS, Federal Highway Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) SUZANNE RUDZINSKI, Director, Transportation and Regional Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (ex officio) JEFFREY W. RUNGE, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) ANNETTE M. SANDBERG, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) JEFFREY N. SHANE, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S.DOT (ex officio) CARL A. STROCK (Maj. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ex officio) NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Transportation Research Board Executive Committee Subcommittee for NCHRP JOHN R. NJORD, Utah DOT (Chair) MARY E. PETERS, Federal Highway Administration JOHN C. HORSLEY, American Association of State Highway ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR., Transportation Research Board and Transportation Officials MICHAEL S. TOWNES, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA MICHAEL D. MEYER, Georgia Institute of Technology C. MICHAEL WALTON, University of Texas, Austin

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 540 Guidelines for Early-Opening-to-Traffic Portland Cement Concrete for Pavement Rehabilitation T. J. VAN DAM K. R. PETERSON L. L. SUTTER A. PANGULURI J. SYTSMA Michigan Technological University Houghton, MI N. BUCH R. KOWLI P. DESARAJU Michigan State University East Lansing, MI S UBJECT A REAS Pavement Design, Management, and Performance Materials and Construction Research Sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in Cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2005 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH NCHRP REPORT 540 PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 18-04B approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISSN 0077-5614 interest and can best be studied by highway departments ISBN 0-309-08835-6 individually or in cooperation with their state universities and Library of Congress Control Number 2005932287 others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to 2005 Transportation Research Board highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Price $20.00 In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States NOTICE Department of Transportation. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the was requested by the Association to administer the research approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and reflects the Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely importance and appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee National Research Council. structure from which authorities on any highway transportation The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review subject may be drawn; it possesses avenues of communications and this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due cooperation with federal, state and local governmental agencies, consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the Council is an insurance of objectivity; it maintains a full-time research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National matters to bring the findings of research directly to those who are in Research Council, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation a position to use them. Officials, or the Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. The program is developed on the basis of research needs Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee identified by chief administrators of the highway and transportation according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research departments and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research areas of research needs to be included in the program are proposed Council. to the National Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. Published reports of the The needs for highway research are many, and the National NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of are available from: mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or Transportation Research Board duplicate other highway research programs. Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: Note: The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and the individual http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore states participating in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is a division of the National Research Council, which serves the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Board's mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. In an objective and interdisciplinary setting, the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy by researchers and practitioners; stimulates research and offers research management services that promote technical excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Board's varied activities annually engage more than 5,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 540 ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Manager, NCHRP AMIR N. HANNA, Senior Program Officer EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications BETH HATCH, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 18-04B Field of Materials and Construction--Area of Concrete Materials KIRSTEN STAHL, California DOT (Chair) LAWRENCE W. COLE, Carmeuse North America, Pittsburgh, PA CHARLES J. KORHONEN, US Army Corps of Engineers CHARLES F. SCHOLER, Purdue University DONALD A. STREETER, New York State DOT WILLIAM L. TRIMM, Jefferson City, MO SUNEEL VANIKAR, FHWA ANDREW J. WIMSATT, Texas DOT STEPHEN W. FORSTER, FHWA Liaison FREDERICK HEJL, TRB Liaison INAM JAWED, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The guidelines presented herein were prepared under NCHRP (DOT). MTU was the prime contractor for this study; MSU and the Project 18-04B, "Durability of `Early-Opening-to-Traffic' Portland Michigan DOT were subcontractors. Thomas J. Van Dam, Associ- Cement Concrete for Pavement Rehabilitation," by researchers at ate Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, MTU, was Michigan Technological University (MTU), Michigan State Uni- the principal investigator. versity (MSU), and the Michigan Department of Transportation

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This report presents guidelines to facilitate highway agencies' use of "early-opening- FOREWORD to-traffic" (EOT) concrete for pavement rehabilitation, thereby reducing pavement clo- By Amir N. Hanna sure and accruing economic and environmental benefits. These guidelines address the Staff Officer proportioning, testing, construction, and other aspects of EOT concrete. This report will Transportation Research be of particular interest to engineers, researchers, and others concerned with the con- Board struction and rehabilitation of concrete pavements. With increasing traffic in urban areas, motorists are becoming less tolerant of delays during pavement rehabilitation. To minimize delays, state highway agencies use EOT rehabilitation strategies that allow work to be completed at night or during peri- ods of low traffic. Generally, portland cement concrete used in these applications is expected to become strong enough to carry traffic within 6 to 24 hours after placement. Rigorous requirements for mix design and strength development have usually been stipulated for EOT concrete applications, often with limited consideration given to materials and construction aspects that influence long-term performance and durabil- ity. Much of the recent research on EOT concrete focused on its mechanical properties; limited research dealt with durability aspects of this type of concrete. Thus, research was needed to evaluate the durability of the concrete used in these applications and to recommend guidelines that address relevant aspects of EOT concrete to help achieve long-term performance, durability, and cost-effectiveness. Under NCHRP Project 18-4B, "Durability of `Early-Opening-to-Traffic' Portland Cement Concrete for Pavement Rehabilitation," Michigan Technological University of Houghton was assigned the objective of developing guidelines for materials, mixtures, and construction techniques of portland cement concrete used in EOT pavement reha- bilitation. The research focused on durability aspects of EOT concrete used for full- depth rehabilitation (e.g., full-depth repair and slab replacement) and dealt with con- crete mixtures that are suited for opening to traffic within 6 to 8 hours or 20 to 24 hours after placement. To accomplish this objective, the researchers performed the following tasks: 1. Reviewed and synthesized information relevant to the materials and practices used for EOT concrete construction. 2. Evaluated six in-service EOT concrete rehabilitation projects located in four states. 3. Conducted laboratory tests on a large number of concrete specimens involving a wide range of mixtures appropriate for use in EOT pavement rehabilitation. 4. Conducted statistical analysis of the data obtained from the field and laboratory evaluations. 5. Developed guidelines for the proportioning, testing, and construction of EOT concrete.

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The guidelines recommended in this project address the different issues associated with the use of EOT concrete for pavement rehabilitation. In these guidelines, the researchers summarized the state of practice for EOT concrete repairs, identified mate- rial properties that impact EOT concrete performance, discussed materials and mixture design considerations that pertain to the durability of EOT concrete, and identified performance-related tests of fresh and hardened concrete. The researchers concluded that, while designing and constructing durable 6- to 8-hour and 20- to 24-hour EOT concrete is feasible, proportioning and constructing durable 6- to 8-hour EOT concrete is par- ticularly challenging. The researchers also highlighted the importance of ensuring an adequate entrained air-void system and further recommended that certain tests be con- ducted on actual job mixtures to account for potential adverse interactions between con- crete constituents. These guidelines will assist in selecting materials and mixtures that are suited for EOT concrete and, therefore, will help pavement engineers consider reha- bilitation methods that will reduce pavement closure and yield economic and environ- mental benefits. The guidelines recommended in this project are presented herein. The agency report on the research performed in this project is accessible on the web as NCHRP Web-Only Document 76 at www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=5203.

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CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 4 CHAPTER 1 Introduction 5 CHAPTER 2 State of the Practice for EOT Concrete Repairs 2.1 Mixture Constituents and Proportions, 5 2.2 Construction Considerations, 12 14 CHAPTER 3 Performance Considerations Related to the Durability of EOT Concrete 3.1 Strength, 14 3.2 Shrinkage, 14 3.3 Durability, 15 3.4 Microstructure, 17 3.5 Absorption/Permeability, 18 19 CHAPTER 4 Materials and Mixture Design Considerations 4.1 Cement Type, 19 4.2 Cement Factor, 19 4.3 w/c Ratio, 20 4.4 Accelerating Admixtures, 20 4.5 Water Reducer, 20 4.6 Coarse Aggregate, 21 22 CHAPTER 5 Testing of Fresh and Hardened Concrete 5.1 Test Methods, 22 5.2 Testing Recommendations, 23 25 REFERENCES A-1 APPENDIX Examples of Mixture Designs