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25 REFERENCES American Concrete Institute (ACI), "State-of-the-Art Report on Kraai, P. P., "A Proposed Test to Determine the Cracking Potential Alkali-Aggregate Reactivity." ACI Manual of Practice--Part Due to Drying Shrinkage of Concrete," Concrete Construction, 1, ACI 221.1R-98, Farmington Hills, Michigan, ISSN 0065- Sept. (1985). 7875 (2003a). Lackey, H. B. "Factors Affecting Use of Calcium Chloride in Con- American Concrete Institute (ACI), "Guide to Durable Concrete." crete." Cement, Concrete, and Aggregates, Vol. 14, No. 2 (Win- ACI Manual of Practice--Part 1, ACI 201.2R-92, Farmington ter 1992). Hills, Michigan, ISSN 0065-7875 (2003b). Lea, F. M., The Chemistry of Cement and Concrete. Chemical Pub- American Concrete Institute (ACI), "Chemical Admixtures for lishing Company (1971). Concrete." ACI Manual of Practice--Part 1, ACI 212.3R-91. Magura, D., "Evaluation of the Air Void Analyzer." Concrete Inter- Farmington Hills, Michigan, ISSN 0065-7875 (2003c). national, August (1996). American Concrete Pavement Association (ACPA), Scale-Resistant Marchand, J., E. J. Sellevold, and M. Pigeon, "The Deicer Salt Scal- Concrete Pavements. Information Series IS117.02P, Skokie, Illi- ing Deterioration of Concrete--An Overview." Durability of Concrete. Third International Conference, Nice, France, V.M, nois (1992). Malhotra, ACI SP-145 (1994). American Concrete Pavement Association (ACPA), Concrete Mehta, P. K., and P. J. M. Monteiro, Concrete: Structure, Proper- Paving Technology--Fast Track Concrete Paving. TB004.02, ties, and Materials. Second Edition. Prentice Hall. Englewoods Skokie, Illinois (1994). Cliffs, New Jersey (1993). American Concrete Pavement Association (ACPA), Concrete Mindess, S., J. F. Young, and D. Darwin, Concrete, Second Edition, Paving Technology--Guidelines for Full-Depth Repair. TB002- Prentice-Hall Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New 02P, Skokie, Illinois (1995). Jersey, ISBN 0-13-064632-6 (2003). Embacher, R. A., and M. B. Snyder. Refinement and Validation of National Highway Institute (NHI), PCC Pavement Evaluation and the Hydraulic Fracture Test. Final Report, Minnesota Depart- Rehabilitation. Reference Manual, NHI Course Number 131062, ment of Transportation (2001). Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transpor- Farney, J. A., and S. H. Kosmatka, Diagnosis and Control of Alkali- tation, October (2001). Aggregate Reactions in Concrete. Concrete Information Series Neville, A. M., Properties of Concrete. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., No. IS413.01T. Portland Cement Association, Skokie, Illinois, New York, New York, ISBN 0-470-23527-6 (1996). ISBN 0 89312 146 0 (1997). Ouyang, C., and O. J. Lane, "Effect of Infilling of Air Voids by Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Air Void Analyzer Eval- Ettringite on Resistance of Concretes to Freezing and Thawing." uation, Report No. FHWA-SA-96-062, U.S. Department of Ettringite--The Sometimes Host of Destruction. SP-177. Ameri- Transportation, Washington, D.C. (1998). can Concrete Institute. Farmington Hills, Michigan (1999). Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Full-Depth Repairs. Pigeon, M., and R. Plateau. Durability of Concrete in Cold Cli- U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. www.fhwa. mates. E & FN Spon, ISBN 0-419-19260-3 (1995). dot.gov/pavement/full.htm (Accessed 2/19/03). Price, B., "Measuring Air Voids in Fresh Concrete." Concrete, Vol. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Temperature Manage- 30, No. 4 (1996). ment of Slabs. Final Report, Special Project 201, U.S. Depart- Schwartz, D. R. NCHRP Synthesis of Highway Practice 134: ment of Transportation, Washington D.C., June (1994). D-Cracking of Concrete Pavements. Transportation Research Folliard, K. J., and K. D. Smith, NCHRP Research Results Digest Board, Washington, D.C. (1987). 281: Aggregate Tests for Portland Cement Concrete Pavements: Stanish, K. D., R. D. Hooton, and M. D. A Thomas, Testing the Review and Recommendations. National Cooperative Highway Chloride Penetration Resistance of Concrete: A Literature Review. Research Program, Transportation Research Board, Washington, FHWA Contract DTFH61-97-R-00022, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June (1977). D.C., September (2003). Stark, D. Characterization and Utilization of Coarse Aggregate Hansen, W. C., "Crystal Growth as a Source of Expansion in Portland- Associated with D-Cracking. RD047.01p, Portland Cement Asso- Cement Concrete." Proceedings, American Society for Test- ciation, Skokie, Illinois (1976). ing and Materials (ASTM), Vol. 63, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Suryavanshi, A. K., J. D. Scantlebury, and S. B. Lyon, "Pore Size (1963). Distribution of OPC and SRPC Mortars in Presence of Chlo- Hooton, R. D., M. D. A. Thomas, and K. Stannish, Prediction of rides." Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 25, No. 5 (1995). Chloride Penetration in Concrete. FHWA-RD-00-142, Federal Thaulow, N., V. Johansen, and U. H. Jakobsen. What Causes Highway Administration, McLean, Virginia, October (2001). Delayed Ettringite Formation? Bulletin No. 60, presented to the Klemm, Waldemar A., and F. MacGregor Miller, Internal Sulfate Fall 1995 Meeting of the Material Research Society, Boston, Attack: A Distress Mechanism at Ambient and Elevated Temper- Massachusetts (1996). atures? PCA R&D Serial No. 2125, Portland Cement Associa- Van Dam, T. J., L. L. Sutter, K. D. Smith, M. J. Wade, and K. R. tion, Skokie, Illinois (1997). Peterson, Guidelines for Detection, Analysis, and Treatment of Kosmatka, S. H., B. Kerkhoff, and W. C. 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26 Van Dam, T. J., L. L. Sutter, K. D. Smith, M. J. Wade, and K. R. Wang, H., and J. E. Gillott, "The Effect of CaCl2Based Accelera- Peterson, Guidelines for Detection, Analysis, and Treatment of tor on Alkali Silica Reaction." Cement and Concrete Research, Materials-Related Distress in Concrete Pavements, Volume 2: Vol. 20 (1990). Guidelines Description and Use. FHWA-RD-01-164, Federal Whiting, D. A., and M. A. Nagi, Manual on Control of Air Content Highway Administration, Turner-Fairbank Highway Research in Concrete. EB116, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, Illi- Center, McLean, Virginia, March (2002b). nois (1998).