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14 CHAPTER FOUR CASE STUDIES Four light rail systems were chosen for detailed analysis of SAN DIEGO TROLLEY, INC. their maintenance staffs. Two criteria were used in the selec- tion. First, the four represented a range of light rail system ages In the late 1970s, the responsibility to construct and operate and organizational structures. Second, they included the four San Diego's new light rail system was given to a new agency. main climate types. The four selected light rail systems were: SDTI has since operated the country's only single-mode light rail service with all necessary support staff under its direct San Diego Trolley, Inc. (SDTI) is the oldest (1981) control. [Some of these support services, such as human "new" light rail system and is the only one that operates resources, will be transferred this year (2005) to the umbrella light rail service only. San Diego has a mild, dry climate. Metropolitan Transit Development Board as a consolidation The Utah Transit Authority (UTA) operates Salt Lake of such functions among the board's subsidiary transit City's new (1999) light rail service, as part of a two- providers.] After initial deliberation, the agency decided to mode system. Salt Lake City's climate ranges from hot develop and operate the light rail system itself. to freezing, but has little rain or snow. The Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District of The organizational structure of SDTI has rail operations Oregon (TriMet) operates Portland's light rail service and maintenance under the Vice-President of Operations. (inaugurated in 1986) as part of a busrail transit sys- This position oversees the superintendents of LRV mainte- tem. Portland has a cool, wet climate. nance, wayside maintenance, and operations (Figure 4). Facil- The Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority's ities maintenance, fare equipment maintenance, and stores (RTA's) older, established Shaker Heights Line was sub- management are under the Vice-President of Administration, stantially renovated in 1989 and is operated as part of a who oversees the Facilities Manager, the Revenue Manager, three-mode transit service. Cleveland's climate ranges and the Stores Manager (among others). The following dis- from hot to cold and gets a great deal of rain and snow. cussion of SDTI is based on its FY2005 budget and board- approved staff levels. Each of the case study systems was visited and discus- sions were held with the director of light rail maintenance (or LRV Maintenance equivalent) and most maintenance managers. Information was collected on the organizational structure of the light rail There are three job descriptions in the area of LRV mainte- maintenance staff, on each maintenance job title and func- nance: ElectromechanicLRV, LinemanLRV, and Assistant tion, and on the number of manager, labor, and clerical posi- LinemanLRV. According to the job descriptions, all three tions employed. This information was categorized by the fol- positions are virtually identical except for the entry qualifi- lowing functional areas: cations and training responsibilities. A candidate for the assis- tant lineman position must (among other things) qualify for LRV maintenance, the SDTI Assistant Lineman Apprenticeship Program and be Track maintenance, able to lift 50 lb unaided. Electromechanics and linemen must Substation and overhead catenary (power) maintenance, have already passed the SDTI Apprenticeship Program or Signal and communication systems (signal) maintenance, have previous education and experience equal to or greater Station maintenance, than the program; the 50-lb lifting requirement is absent. Line- Facilities maintenance, men must help train assistant linemen, and electromechanics Fare equipment maintenance, must help train the other two. SDTI's organization shows an Stores (parts) management, and assistant superintendent in both the LRV maintenance and Maintenance administration (if needed). MOW areas. In cases where maintenance functions may be grouped There are a total of 80 LRV maintainer positions, 10 man- under one manager and cost center--for example, station and agement (salaried) positions, and 2 clerical positions in LRV facilities maintenance and power and signal maintenance-- maintenance. The system has a total fleet of 123 LRVs, 83 of the managers helped clarify how many employees worked on which are used during peak periods. SDTI operated 7,079,000 what specific functions. revenue vehicle-miles in 2004.

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15 Vice-President of Vice-President of Administration Accounting Operations Admin. Asst. Manager Facilities Manager Superintendent of Superintendent of Superintendent of Admin. Asst. Wayside Maintenance Transportation LRV Maintenance Facilities Supervisor (6) Clerk Typist/ Clerk Typist/ LRV Quality Data Clerk (2) Data Clerk (2) Control Serviceperson (59) Assistant Assistant Superintendent Superintendent Revenue Manager Clerk Typist/ Training Training D. Clerk (0.5) Supervisor Supervisor Maintenance Supervisor Track MOW Revenue Supervisor (2) Supervisor (4) Maintenance Maintainer (13) Supervisor (6) Stores Manager Trackperson (14) MOW Maintainer (31) LRV Maintainer (80) Storekeeper (8) = Management; = Labor; = Clerical; - - - = Non-Maintenance. FIGURE 4 San Diego Trolley, Inc., structure of LRT maintenance organization. MOW Maintenance Moreover, the little annual precipitation that San Diego does receive can come in a few intense storms and cause occa- Light rail maintenance organizations often have the MOW sional track washouts. functions under one manager. SDTI is an example of this organizational structure. The Superintendent of Wayside Track maintenance has its own group composed of 2 track Maintenance handles all the administrative duties for the supervisors, considered management positions within SDTI, working functional groups under him. Three management and and 14 track "servicepersons" (maintainers). Track main- two clerical positions perform these administrative duties. tainers do not yet have an established apprenticeship pro- gram, although SDTI just (FY2005) approved a Training The classification and job description pattern described Supervisor--Wayside position for both the power/signal and above for LRV maintenance is identical for power and signal the track maintenance areas. The MOW maintenance group maintenance. The personnel classification for those working maintains 96.6 mi of track. in these areas is MOW maintainers. The three relevant job descriptions are: ElectromechanicMOW, LinemanMOW, and Assistant LinemanMOW. The qualifications for these Facilities and Station Maintenance positions reflect those for the LRV positions down to the 50-lb lifting requirement. Although this unit's training course This maintenance group and the next two discussed here come has the very same name as the LRV maintainer's, the program under SDTI's Vice-President for Administration (see Fig- ure 4). Reporting to this vice-president are a manager of facil- for MOW positions is tailored to substation, catenary, signal, ities, six facilities supervisors, and an administrative assistant. and communication equipment repair. The unit has one labor position--serviceperson--of which there are 59. The manager estimates that 1 FTE supervisor Although all MOW maintainers can work in any of the and 10 serviceperson FTEs work repairing SDTI's nonstation four functional areas, in general at any given time, SDTI facilities, such as the yards and shops complex. The remain- managers estimate that approximately half of the 31-person ing 5 supervisors and 49 servicepersons clean and repair the force works on traction power and catenary repair and half system's 49 stations. on signals and communication repair. The four management positions in the group are divided in the same proportion. Fare Equipment Maintenance Weather typically does not play a major role in SDTI's MOW. Strong winds during certain times of the year can This maintenance function is also found under the Vice- affect crossing gates (as many as 27 have broken in one day.) President for Administration, specifically under the Revenue