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16 Manager. The position manages the operating aspects of rev- Outside Contracting enues as well as the maintenance of fare equipment. Under the Maintenance Supervisor there are 13 revenue maintain- Table 7 shows what percentage of nonutility costs were ers responsible for maintaining and repairing the system's expected to be contracted out by SDTI in its FY2005 budget 119 TVMs. year as a percentage of total costs (wage and nonwage) for each maintenance function. The highest percentage of out- side contracts is in the track maintenance area and probably Stores Management reflects the relatively low level of track maintenance planned this particular year. Of the outside contracts let for track Every maintenance department must have some place to maintenance, 71% is planned for track maintenance services store and retrieve parts needed in the repair of the system's and contracted track crews. The greatest dollar amount of rolling stock and fixed facilities. San Diego's stores group is outside services is in LRV maintenance. Fully 63% of those under the Vice-President of Administration, although it is costs are for interior car cleaning services, most of the rest is housed in the yards and shops complex. The Stores Manager for contracted accident repair and vandalism repairs. Of the oversees eight storekeepers. contracted services in the signal and communications area 80% is for crossing gate maintenance and repair. In all, SDTI Manpower Ratios plans to expend 11.3% of its maintenance expenditures on outside services. Table 5 summarizes the maintenance staff of San Diego Trolley by functional area. There are 240 total FTEs. This is UTAH TRANSIT AUTHORITY 2.5 (vehicle and nonvehicle) maintenance employees per track-mile, 2.9 employees per VOMS, or 3.2 employees per Salt Lake City's light rail system opened in 1999. It is one of 100,000 revenue car-miles. Of the 240, 38% are involved in the newest LRT systems in the country, with only the Hudson the maintenance of the LRVs, 7% are involved with fare Bergen (2002), Houston (2003), and Minneapolis (2004) equipment maintenance, and 4% with stores management. systems opening since then. It operates in a climate of large Of the remaining employees, 23% maintain the wayside, temperature extremes, but with little annual rain or snow. 23% the stations, and 3% other fixed facilities. UTA, a multimodal service provider, is organized into Table 6 tabulates the productivity indices of SDTI's main- three business units. One supplies the actual bus and rail tran- tenance staff. The first row arrays the ratio of management sit services and another business services support for the oper- staff to labor (nonclerical) staff. It shows a range of between ating units, with a third not directly involved with operations. 5.2 and 8.9. The overall average is 5.9. For the main areas of The Rail Services Business Unit has both rail operations and vehicle and wayside maintenance the range is between 7 rail maintenance under a Rail Service General Manager (Fig- and 8. The next rows calculate the number of employees ure 5). The rail maintenance functions are separated into an needed to maintain a unit of the system, be it a vehicle, a mile LRV maintenance group and an MOW maintenance group. of trackway, or a fare vending machine. Rail station maintenance is managed out of UTA's Support TABLE 5 SAN DIEGO TROLLEY'S LRT MAINTENANCE STAFF (FTEs) Maintenance of Way Fare Collection Equipment Facilities Maintenance Catenary Maintenance Signals and Commun. Station Maintenance Stores Management Traction Power and Track Maintenance LRV Maintenance Administration Maintenance Maintenance Total Category Managers 29.5 10 3 2 2 2 5.5 1.5 2.5 1 Labor 205 80 0 14 15 16 49 10 13 8 Clerical 5.5 2 2 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 Total 240 92 5 16 17 18 55 12 16 9

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17 TABLE 6 SAN DIEGO TROLLEY'S STAFF PRODUCTIVITY INDICATORS Maintenance of Way Traction Power and Catenary Signals and Communication Fare Collection Equipment Facilities Maintenance Station Maintenance Stores Management Track Maintenance LRV Maintenance Administration Units Involved Maintenance Maintenance Maintenance Productivity Index (employees = managers + labor + clerical) Workers per Manager N/A 8 N/A 7 7.5 8 8.9 6.7 5.2 8 Employees per LRV (peak) 83 1.11 0.11 Employees per LRV (fleet) 123 0.75 0.07 Employees per Track-Mile 96.6 0.05 0.17 0.18 0.19 Employees per Station 49 1.12 Employees per Maintenance 2 6.00 Facility Employees per TVM 119 0.13 Notes: N/A = not available; TVM = ticket vending machine. Services Business Unit under the Manager of Facilities Main- has had to increase its staff accordingly. The training of the tenance. This position is responsible for maintaining all of staff is done through courses at local community colleges, in- UTA's facilities (except for the rail yards and shops), includ- house classes, on-the-job training, and training by equipment ing rail stations and bus stops. vendors. Electromechanics must pass tests that demonstrate their proficiency. LRV maintainers are encouraged to work There are two levels of management, a minimal number in diverse areas and typically do. Some workers gravitate to of maintenance worker classifications, and no clerical staff. a particular specialty. UTA's structure does not have an assistant superintendent level of management. Positions are usually filled internally, typically from the rail services employees. Were it not for the growth of the fleet, LRV Maintenance there would not be many job openings: only one electro- mechanic has left in 5 years. Fully 67% of LRV maintenance In its first 5 years the LRT fleet increased from 10 vehicles employees have a perfect attendance record, and only 1% to to 46. To keep up with this growth the LRV maintenance unit 2% is absent more that a few times a year. The FMLA has not had any effect. UTA's rail fleet is 46 vehicles, of which TABLE 7 39 are typically needed during peak periods. UTA operated SAN DIEGO'S OUTSIDE CONTRACTING COSTS 2,355,000 revenue vehicle-miles in 2004. TO TOTAL MAINTENANCE COSTS Maintenance Area Percent of Total Costs MOW Maintenance LRV Maintenance 14.1 Track Maintenance 16.6 Two groups are on the organization chart--MOW and Traction Power Maintenance 3.3 facilities--but in practice there are three: track, line, and Signals and Communication Maintenance 9.8 facilities maintenance. Each unit has two related job classifi- Station Maintenance 14.4 cations. In track maintenance there are the Rail Maintenance Facilities Maintenance 13.4 Supervisor and Rail Maintenance Workers (six positions). In facilities maintenance there are the Facilities Maintenance Fare Equipment Maintenance 3.8 Manager and the Class A Mechanics (three positions).

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18 Executive Asst. Rail Service Project Admin. Support Services General Manager General Manager Office Coord. Buyer Manager of Manager of Manager of Manager of Facilities Maintenance Maintenance of Way Vehicle Maintenance Operations Maintainer (4) Vehicle Maint. Tech. Services MOW Facilities Supervisor (5) Supervisor Supervisors (4) Supervisor Electromechanics (25) Journeyist Line & Signal Class A Technicians (15) Mechanics (3) Rail Service Parts Rail Maintenance Employees (14) Supervisor Workers (6) Parts Clerk (4) = Management; = Labor; = Clerical; - - - - - - - = Non-Maintenance Positions. FIGURE 5 Salt Lake City UTA's structure of LRT maintenance organization. For line maintenance there is the MOW Supervisor (3 posi- Station Maintenance tions) and the Line and Signal Technician (15 positions). These 18 people maintain and repair substations, overhead Station maintenance is done by the Support Services Business catenary, signals, grade-crossing gates, and TVMs. Each Unit by a group of employees who maintain all bus garages supervisor and technician is expected to work on any of these and other UTA facilities, bus stops, and rail stations. (The and does. An estimate of the percentage of time the three MOW workers also do light maintenance at stations, such as supervisors spend on these areas is 10% on substations, 20% touch-up painting and changing light bulbs.) The manager in on TVMs, and 70% on signals and crossing gates. The tech- charge estimates that station maintenance takes 1.65 manage- nicians divide their time a little differently. There is now a ment FTEs and 4 labor FTEs. The station maintenance crews program to replace all catenary hangers and two technicians are supported by the outside contracts described here. have been assigned that work. Another 1.3 FTEs maintain the UTA has no clerical staff assigned to any maintenance substations, which require little attention. The remaining 11.7 functions. An office coordinator assigned to the Rail Service FTEs spend 75% of their time on the signal system and 25% General Manager spends approximately 10% of that posi- on TVM repairs. To work on the signal system a technician tion's time doing data entry; however, the remainder of the has to complete two levels of Union Pacific's signal school data is entered by the supervisors or technicians themselves. and have a period of on-the-job training. This results in only valuable data being kept; those data are useable and to the point. It is believed that costs are low because the system was designed and built with good drainage and track structure (130-lb rail with concrete ties), the staff tries to get ahead of Manpower Ratios any problems (such as with the hanger replacement pro- gram), and the system is relatively new. Weather is not seen Table 8 arrays UTA's rail maintenance staff by function. The as a major maintenance factor. As with LRV maintenance, total number of rail maintenance staff is 86.7 FTEs, for an staff turnover is low: in 5 years only one line technician and average of 2.23 employees per track-mile, 2.9 employees per one supervisor have left. The system operates more than 38.9 VOMS, or 3.7 employees per 100,000 revenue vehicle-miles. track-miles and has 65 grade crossings. It has one yard and Fifty-three percent of the staff works in LRV maintenance, shop complex and 62 TVMs. 26% in MOW (track, power, signals) maintenance, approxi-

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19 TABLE 8 SALT LAKE CITY'S LRT MAINTENANCE STAFF (FTEs) Maintenance of Way Equipment Maintenance Catenary Maintenance Signals and Commun. Station Maintenance Stores Management Traction Power and Track Maintenance LRV Maintenance Fare Collection Administration Maintenance Maintenance Facilities Total Category Managers 14.7 6 1 1 0.3 2.1 1 0.6 1.7 1 Labor 72 40 0 6 3.3 8.8 3 2.9 4 4 Clerical 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total 86.7 46 1 7 3.6 10.9 4 3.5 5.7 5 mately 7% in station maintenance, with the rest in facilities Outside Contracting and TVM maintenance and stores management. UTA contracts out a substantial amount of station maintenance Table 9 calculates the system maintenance productivity work, as indicated in Table 10. The county of Salt Lake, factors. Overall there is one management employee for every through an interagency agreement, performs periodic sweep- 4.9 maintainers. ing of parking lots, snow removal at parking lots, landscaping TABLE 9 SALT LAKE CITY'S STAFF PRODUCTIVITY INDICATORS Maintenance of Way Signals and Communication Fare Collection Equipment Facilities Maintenance Catenary Maintenance Station Maintenance Stores Management Traction Power and Track Maintenance LRV Maintenance Administration Units Involved Maintenance Maintenance Productivity Index (employees = managers + labor + clerical) Workers per Manager N/A 6.7 N/A 6 11 4.2 3 4.8 2.4 4 Employees per LRV (peak) 39 1.18 0.11 Employees per LRV (fleet) 46 1.00 0.07 Employees per Track-Mile 38.9 0.03 0.18 0.09 0.28 Employees per Station 23 0.25 Employees per Maintenance Facility 1 4.00 Employees per TVM 62 0.06 Notes: N/A = not available; TVM = ticket vending machine.