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20 TABLE 10 TRI-COUNTY METROPOLITAN SALT LAKE CITY'S OUTSIDE MAINTENANCE COSTS TRANSPORTATION DISTRICT OF OREGON TO TOTAL MAINTENANCE COSTS This system was inaugurated in 1986 and has expanded to its Maintenance Area Percent of Total Costs present 3-line, 62-station, 82-mi network. LRV Maintenance 0.1% Track Maintenance TriMet's organization structure has all rail maintenance functions under a Director, Rail Maintenance (Figure 6). Traction Power Maintenance There are four basic groups under this position: LRV main- Signals and Commun. Maintenance 4.1% tenance (done at two facilities), MOW maintenance, main- Facilities Maintenance tenance administration, and stores management. Although Fare Equipment Maintenance Station TriMet allocates the expenses of the director and his sup- Maintenance about 50% port administrative staff to both LRV and MOW mainte- nance, for this study that unit will be kept separate. The dis- cussion that follows is based on FY2004 staff and actual year-end expenditures. maintenance, and asphalt repairs. The contract is for $300,000 per year. Station glass and vandalism repairs are done through LRV Maintenance an outside contract; approximately $100,000 was spent on these repairs in 2004. A private contractor also provides sta- Portland has had three generations of LRVs. It established its tion cleaning services through a $75,000 per year contract, own vehicle engineering group to manage vehicle upgrades. and other outside contractors perform another $25,000 per This group is considered to be a very necessary unit to year on station repairs that are beyond the abilities of the address vehicle design and overhaul issues and to help train UTA's crews to handle. The LRV maintenance area has no LRV mechanics. outsourced repair work to speak of, and the MOW area con- tracts out functions such as track inspection, geometry car ser- TriMet started with a single yard and shop complex (Ruby vices, and weed control. Junction) in 1986, but added a second, smaller yard and shop Director Rail Maintenance Manager Manager Manager Manager Admin. Manager MOW Maint. MOW Programs LRV Maintenance LRV Maintenance (RJ & Elm.) (Elmonica) (Ruby Junction) MOW Maint. Systems Supervisors (8) Analyst Maintenance LRV Maint. LRV Maint. Spec./Asst. (4) Supervisor (4) Supervisor (4) MOW Engrs. (2) ClerkMMIS (2) Fare Equip. Engr. (1) Coordinator Asst. Super. (3) Asst. Supervisor (3) Emp. Programs Journey./Appr. (23) Journey./Appr. (63) LRV Cleaners (10) LRV Cleaners (13) Training Supervisor Helper/Janitors (2) Helper/Janitors (3) (2) Non-Rev. Mech. (2) Storekeeper Asst. Supervisors (12) Signal Journey./Appr. (9) ClerkMMIS (2) LRV Training/Engr. Asst. Storekeeper Substation Journey./Appr. (6) Supervisors (4) OCS Journey./Appr. (11) Engineering Tech. Comm. Tech./Asst. (5) Partsman (2) TVM Journey./Appr. (11) Jr. Partsman (2) Track Maintainers (8) MOW Laborers (9) Plant Mech. (10) Station Cleaners (20) = Management; = Labor; = Clerical. Landscapers (6) FIGURE 6 Portland TriMet's structure of LRT maintenance organization. (Some job titles have been modified for clarity.) MMIS = maintenance management information system.

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21 facility on the opposite side of downtown (Elmonica) when it cian. As with LRV maintainers, the advancement path is extended its Blue Line to the Hillsboro area. The main facility apprentice to journeyman, although advancement is typically remains at Ruby Junction, where all major LRV repair work within one's selected function. is done. Although Portland's climate has a fair amount of annual TriMet has one job classification for LRV maintainers: precipitation, it is spread out over the year and weather is not LRV Maintenance Technician. There are two levels involved, seen as a maintenance problem. The two MOW problems an apprentice and a journeyman. A journeyman can work noted were downtown curb rail, especially in the fall with alone and sign off on inspections. Both the apprentice and leaves, and overhead catenary section insulators. journeyman can work on any aspect of LRV maintenance and repair within the limits of his or her experience and train- Stores Management ing. To make sure there will be enough trained LRV jour- neymen available when needed, LRV maintenance managers The Storekeeper reports directly to the Director of Rail Main- start a group of prequalified candidates on a 30-month train- tenance, but is physically located at the Ruby Junction yard. ing program every year or so. These groups have included There are two assistant storekeepers and four partsmen in this from 10 to 19 students. Experience shows that 30% of the group. The reason for the two assistants reflects the need to students do not complete the program. In the 7 years since service the two yards. 1998, 37 journeymen and apprentices have left the agency (an average of 7% each year) and 54 apprentices have been trained in 6 groups (76 started the training). This training Manpower Ratios replacement cycle has kept a pool of well-trained apprentices available for advancement. Table 11 summarizes TriMet's maintenance staffing by func- tion. The entire LRT maintenance staff equals 279 FTEs. This Early on, TriMet LRV maintenance contracted out a lot is 3.4 maintenance employees (vehicle and nonvehicle) per more of its maintenance, but now contracts an ever-decreasing track-mile, 4.8 employees per VOMS, or 4.9 employees per amount owing to union requests and a desire for better qual- 100,000 revenue car-miles. Of the 279 FTEs, 40 are manage- ity control. The LRV maintenance group currently has 119 ment, 5 are clerical, and 234 are maintainers; this is an over- LRV maintenance technicians, 15 management positions, all maintainer-to-manager ratio of 5.9. Forty-nine percent are and 2 clerks. TriMet does its own LRV cleaning in-house and involved in LRV maintenance, 25% in MOW maintenance, has a staff of 23 for this function. It has a fleet of 95 vehicles, 13% in station maintenance, and 3% in facilities maintenance. of which 83 are used during peak service. TriMet operated Overall division management (3%), fare equipment (5%), and 6,775,000 revenue vehicle-miles in 2004. stores management (2%) make up the remaining 10%. Table 12 calculates TriMet's maintenance productivity MOW Maintenance indicators. There is one management position for every eight LRV maintainers. For MOW, the ratio of management posi- As seen in Figure 6, all MOW maintenance personnel tions to MOW maintainers ranges from 8 to 34. One would report to a single Manager, MOW Maintenance. Under this expect there to be more management presence in the signal manager are eight MOW supervisors, one each for track/ and communications area because of its critical importance laborers, substations, overhead catenary, signals, communi- and technical nature, and perhaps the opposite explains the cations, cleaners/landscapers, facilities, and fare equipment. high ratio for station maintenance. Under them are 12 assistant supervisors: two each for track, substations, overhead catenary, and cleaners/landscapers; one each for signals, communication, facilities, and fare equip- Contracting Out Maintenance Tasks ment. These eight functional groups are supported by an engi- neering and training staff of five. The entire MOW group has Portland undertakes a limited amount of contracting out in 98 MOW maintainers, 14 management staff, and 3 clerical the area of LRV maintenance except for the laundry services staff. The system has 88.6 track-miles, with 62 stations and contract. Table 13 shows what percent of nonutility costs were 2 yards and shops facilities. contracted out in FY2004 as a percentage of total costs (wage and nonwage) for each maintenance functional area. Of note It is clear that TriMet emphasizes training. As with the LRV is the percentage of signal and communications maintenance maintenance group, the MOW maintenance group has its own and repair that was contracted out. The next highest percent training staff. There are five functional areas that require dif- was for track maintenance, and those contracts involved rail ferent applicant prerequisites: traction power substation main- grinding (37%), rail maintenance (39%), equipment rental tainers, overhead traction electrification maintainers, rail (14%), and bridge repair (10%). Elevator repair constituted communication system technician, signal maintainer, track 58% of outside contracts in station maintenance, and almost maintenance technician, and fare equipment/LRT lift techni- all the outside contracts in the facilities maintenance area were