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22 TABLE 11 PORTLAND'S LRT MAINTENANCE STAFF (FTEs) Maintenance of Way Maintenance Administration Signals and Communication Fare Collection/LRT Lift Equipment Maintenance Facilities Maintenance Catenary Maintenance Station Maintenance Stores Management Traction Power and Track Maintenance LRV Maintenance Administration Maintenance Total Category Managers 40 8 15 7 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 Labor 234 0 119 0 19 21 16 34 8 12 5 Clerical 5 0 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total 279 8 136 10 20 23 18 35 9 14 6 for building repairs. In all, 4.6% of the maintenance expendi- Cleveland and all other cities in Cayahoga County since 1975. tures were for outside services. The light rail network operates over 30 mi; the rapid transit lines over 38 mi. The light rail line was opened originally in GREATER CLEVELAND REGIONAL 1920 and was substantially rebuilt in the mid-1980s. Major TRANSPORTATION AUTHORITY rail track rehabilitation is currently underway. It is one of the country's oldest, continuously operating light rail systems. RTA is a multimodal (bus, rapid transit, light rail, and Com- RTA is unique in the light rail industry in that the light rail munity Response Transit) system that has served the city of and rapid transit systems are both maintained by the same TABLE 12 PORTLAND'S STAFF PRODUCTIVITY INDICATORS Maintenance of Way Signals and Communication Fare Collection/LRT Lift Equipment Maintenance Facilities Maintenance Catenary Maintenance Station Maintenance Stores Management Traction Power and Track Maintenance LRV Maintenance Administration Units Involved Maintenance Productivity Index (employees = managers + labor + clerical) Workers per Manager N/A 8 N/A 19 10.5 8 34 8 6 5 Employees per LRV (peak) 83 1.64 0.07 Employees per LRV (fleet) 95 1.43 0.06 Employees per Track-Mile 88.6 0.11 0.23 0.26 0.20 Employees per Station 62 0.56 Employees per Maintenance 2 4.50 Facility Employees per TVM 183 0.08 Notes: N/A = not available; TVM = ticket vending machines.

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23 TABLE 13 The RTA system runs mostly single-car trains in peak as PORTLAND TRIMET'S OUTSIDE CONTRACTING well as base service, and runs some two-car trains in the peak COSTS TO TOTAL MAINTENANCE COSTS periods owing to ridership requirements. Of the 48 LRVs pur- chased when the light rail line was rehabilitated, 16 are used Maintenance Area Percent of Total Costs during peak service; of the 60 rapid transit cars available, 22 are LRV Maintenance 0.07 used during peak service. The eight football games and about Track Maintenance 18.4 three special events each year at the Cleveland Browns Stadium Traction Power Maintenance 4.2 require approximately 32 LRVs to handle the crowds. The result of this fleet size versus peak period needs is that one-third Signals and Communication 20.6 of the fleet is stored for a month at a time, and then another one- Maintenance third replaces them the next month. This is called "inventory Station Maintenance 7.0 rotation" by RTA staff. Through inventory rotation all the rail- Facilities Maintenance 7.8 cars are maintained to be able to function acceptably and safely. Fare Equipment Maintenance 0 Cleveland operated 954,000 revenue vehicle-miles in 2004. The organizational structure of the RTA's Rail District has all operating and maintenance functions under a District Director. There are four managers under this director over- staff, and both types of railcars are maintained in the same seeing transportation, rail equipment maintenance, power and yard and shops. Until 1984 there were three shops (two for way maintenance, and facilities maintenance, as shown in Fig- rapid transit and one for LRT); however, expectations of effi- ure 7. The responsibilities of the maintenance managers are ciencies owing to centralization and a capitally funded mod- typical for LRT systems, except that they include both LRV ernization program resulted in the three shops being com- and rapid transit cars. bined into one new shop. The shop's major function is being a running repair facility for rapid transit and light rail cars The functional manager estimated that 60% of his employ- with a small amount of heavy repair and overhaul work being ees worked on LRT maintenance and the remaining 40% on performed as staffing, budget, and time permit. rapid transit. (Rail) District Director Manager Manager Manager Manager Facilities Transportation Maint. Rail Equipment Power and Way Planner Supervisor Rail Shop Supervisor Supervisor Maint. Rail Stations (2) Track Signals Supervisor (2) Planner Asst. Supervisor (2) Lead Tech. (3) Assistant Adminr. Maintainer (7) Technician (8) Supervisor (5) Maintenance Leader (3) Maintenance Technician (7) Laborer (22) Maint. Tech. (12) Maintainer (8) Sp. Eq. Mech. Ldr. (1) Maintainer (4) Asst. (1) Maintenance Helper (4) Sp. Eq. Mech. (2) Laborer (10) Electronics Tech. (3) Secr. (1) Motor Repr. Ldr. (1) Machinist (1) Supervisor Supervisor Mechanic (4) Supervisor Power Overhead Body Mechanic (8) Material Janitorial Services A/C Mechanic (4) Handler Brake Mechanic (2) Leader Load Electrician (7) Dispatcher (4) Supervisor Lines (2) Maintainer (32) Asst. Supervisor Maint. (1) Servicer (15) Handler Janitor Leader (3) Ld. Maintainer (1) Upholsterer (1) (2) Janitor (30) Maintainer (17) Maintainer (13) Laborer (1) Clerk/Typist (1) Stenographer (1) Management = ; Labor = ; Clerical = -------- = Non-Maintenance Positions. FIGURE 7 Cleveland RTA's structure of rail maintenance organization (light rail and rapid transit).

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24 LRV Maintenance Based on RTA's experience with railcar maintenance, maintaining the LRV takes twice as much work as maintain- Owing to budget constraints, over the last 10 years the num- ing the rapid transit cars. ber of LRV and rapid transit maintenance positions has dropped from 115 to 86--from 104 to 86 in the last 3 years Rail stores are also housed within the LRV maintenance alone--and an additional 9 positions remain frozen and group. The 2005 approved budgeted positions consist of four unfilled. Inventory rotation lessens somewhat the LRV main- parts handlers, one leader and three clerks. tenance load. RTA has received federal funding to perform a mid-life overhaul of 34 of the LRVs. This project is primar- MOW Maintenance ily contracted out, with some work being performed by RTA maintenance staff. The contractor has begun to deliver rebuilt The MOW department includes four main functional units-- cars. Maintenance of the LRV fleet is a challenge owing to track, power, overhead, and signals and communications-- the fleet's age, parts availability, escalation of costs, and avail- headed by a manager with support staff. The employees in able staff to do this work, in addition to the required mainte- each of these functional units are specialists, and there are nance of the rapid transit fleet. several job descriptions within each unit. There are three to five designated MOW positions reflecting the more formal The organization chart lists a number of specialized LRV levels of advancement. Most training is developed and pro- maintenance positions; there are 14 job descriptions below vided in-house by power and way staff as part of normal the management levels in the LRV maintenance area. Labor duties. The LRT train control and signal system is main- tained by the signal department. Current LRV train control agreements allow workers to shift between maintenance jobs consists of cab-signaled and computerized central train con- as they advance. This increases efficiency and allows for a trol territory, automated braking system territory, dark (no certain amount of cross-training. However, once a mainte- signal) territory with some station protection signals, and nance worker achieves the highest level, he/she is restricted dark territory. from working out of position. For example, a worker can work primarily as an electrician for many years, but will also The MOW manager indicated that the percentage of time work, gain experience, and train in other areas as needed. MOW staff worked on light rail could be fairly approximated However, if he or she applies for and is selected as a senior- by the track-miles of LRT to the total LRT and rapid transit level brake mechanic, from then on this individual cannot do track-miles. The LRT system has 33 track-miles, or 44% of an electrician's tasks. RTA's total track-miles. Many of RTA's LRV mechanics were hired in the 1970s RTA has a crew of three charged with operating and and are close to having the 30 years of service required for maintaining special equipment and the nonrevenue vehicles full retirement. used by the division. TABLE 14 CLEVELAND'S LRT MAINTENANCE STAFF (FTEs) Maintenance of Way Traction Power and Catenary Signals and Communication Fare Collection/LRT Lift Equipment Maintenance Facilities Maintenance Station Maintenance Stores Management Track Maintenance LRV Maintenance Administration Maintenance Maintenance Total Category Managers 8.8 3.1 0.9 0.45 1.75 0.45 1.8 0.2 N/A 0.1 Labor 127 51.2 0.4 15 13.6 16.3 22 6.5 N/A 2 Clerical 1.8 1.3 0 0 0 0 0.4 0.1 N/A 0 Total 137.6 55.6 1.3 15.4 15.4 16.8 24.2 6.8 N/A 2.1 Note: N/A = not available.

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25 TABLE 15 CLEVELAND'S STAFF PRODUCTIVITY INDICATORS Maintenance of Way Traction Power and Catenary Signals and Communication Fare Collection/LRT Lift Equipment Maintenance Facilities Maintenance Station Maintenance Stores Management Track Maintenance LRV Maintenance Administration Units Involved Maintenance Maintenance Productivity Index (employees = managers + labor + clerical) Workers per Manager N/A 17.9 N/A 30.2* 8.8 36.2* 12.2 32.5* N/A 20* Employees per LRV (peak) 16 3.48 0.13 Employees per LRV (fleet) 48 1.16 0.04 Employees per Track-Mile 33.0 0.40 0.47 0.47 0.51 Employees per Station 39 0.62 Employees per Maintenance 1 6.80 Facility Employees per TVM 13 N/A Notes: N/A = not available; TVM = ticket vending machine. *These functional areas have less than one manager FTE overseeing the maintainers. This results in manager-to-employee ratios greater than the number of employees performing the work. TABLE 16 Station and Facilities Maintenance TOTAL MAINTENANCE STAFF STATISTICS FOR CASE STUDY CITIES These functions are both managed by the Manager, Facili- ties. Under him are two supervisors for stations and facilities, Portland (Oregon) and a supervisor for janitorial services. The manager esti- Salt Lake City mates that approximately 80% of staff time is allocated to San Diego Cleveland station cleaning and maintenance, 20% to the maintenance of the yards and shops. These crews spend 50% of their time on LRT and 50% on rapid transit stations. RTA has 34 light rail Total Maintenance Employees 240 87 279 138 stations and one rail maintenance facility. Employees per VOMS 2.9 2.9 4.8 9.2 Employees per 100,000 Revenue 3.2 3.7 4.9 14.7 Fare Equipment Maintenance Vehicle-Miles Employees per Track-Mile 2.5 2.23 3.4 4.2 RTA collects fares on its light rail system using the train operator and a farebox. Outbound it collects fares on enter- Percent of Staff in: ing; inbound it collects fares on exiting. There are 13 TVMs, LRV maintenance 38% 53% 49% 40% which are all at rapid transit stations. For this reason, the Maintenance of way 23% 25% 25% 36% summary of staff that follows indicates "not applicable" in the fare equipment column. Station maintenance 23% 7% 13% 17% Facilities maintenance 5% 5% 3% 5% Manpower Ratios TVM maintenance 7% 4% 5% N/A Stores management 4% 6% 2% 2% Table 14 summarizes RTA's maintenance staff by functional area. There are approximately 137.6 FTEs performing light Overall maintenance administration 0% 0% 3% 0% rail maintenance. This is 4.2 total maintenance employees Notes: N/A = not available; VOMS = vehicle operated in maximum service; per track-mile, 9.2 employees per VOMS, or 14.7 employees TVM = ticket vending machine. per 100,000 revenue car-miles. Of that number, 8.8 FTEs are

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26 TABLE 17 COMPARISON OF MAINTENANCE EMPLOYEES WITH ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND JOB POSITIONS Simplicity of Organizational Maintenance Employees per Maintenance Employees per Maintenance Employees per 100,000 Revenue Car-Miles Positions in Organization Number of Maintenance Track-Mile Structure VOMS System Salt Lake City 2.2 2.9 3.7 Simple 16 San Diego 2.3 2.9 3.2 Simple 23 Portland 3.4 4.8 4.9 Moderate 37 Cleveland 4.2 9.2 14.7 Moderately complex 53 Note: VOMS = vehicle operated in maximum service. TABLE 18 MAINTAINER-TO-MANAGER RATIOS OF SOME LRT SYSTEMS Signal and Communication Fare Collection Equipment Overhead Maintenance Facilities Maintenance Station Maintenance Stores Management Traction Power and Track Maintenance LRV Maintenance Maintenance Maintenance LRT System Case Study Cities Cleveland's RTA 17.9 30.2 8.8 36.2 12.2 32.5 N/A 20 Portland's TriMet 8 19 10.5 8 34 8 6 5 Salt Lake City's UTA 6.7 6 11 4.2 2.4 3 4.8 4 San Diego's SDTI 8 7 7.5 8 8.9 6.7 5.2 8 Other Cities Buffalo's NFTA 6.25 4 6.5 20 24 24 * -- Dallas' DART 5.7 3.5 6.1 2.6 3.1 1.25 5.9 -- Philadelphia's SEPTA 8.4 6 5 2.5 8 4 5 -- Possible Common Range 68 57 610 48 812 48 56 47 Notes: When the number of manager FTEs assigned is less than one, the number of maintainers shown will be greater than the actual number. N/A = not available. *Buffalo's survey response indicated no manager position for this function.