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4 CHAPTER TWO CHARACTERISTICS OF EXISTING LIGHT RAIL TRANSIT SYSTEMS RELATED TO SYSTEM MAINTENANCE There are 20 light rail systems operating in the United States. Type of vehicle--technically advanced vehicles most APTA lists more, but this study excluded those smaller elec- likely require more maintenance. tric rail operations not used primarily for commuting. Of the Experience of the manufacturer--new vehicle designs 20 systems, one is run by a contract operator (the Hudson or a less experienced vendor may result in additional Bergen Line in northern New Jersey), making some of its ongoing maintenance. Proprietary parts may be costly operating information proprietary. In all, 11 of the 20 systems to obtain. responded to the survey of system characteristics and the Labor constraints--work rules may affect efficiency, and questionnaire. To supplement the 2004 information obtained high employee turnover rates lower staff productivity. from these 11 properties, information on 8 of the remaining Staff experience--new systems may have higher costs 9 systems was taken from the 2003 NTD. Because the Min- because staff is less experienced or is purposefully neapolis light rail system opened in mid-2004 and had no full- overstaffed for planned expansions. year statistics to report it was the only light rail system not Budget constraints--systems often experience budget studied. constraints that limit the amount of maintenance performed. Spare ratios--a higher spare ratio increases apparent OVERVIEW OF STATISTICS maintenance staff per peak vehicle. Tables 13 provide the characteristics of each operating LRT system that pertain to system maintenance. There is one table Table 2 presents factors involved in the maintenance of the each for LRV maintenance (Table 1), MOW (Table 2), and guideway including the track, traction power (substations and stations and facilities (Table 3). The top grouping in each overhead catenary), and signal and communication subsys- table is the 2004 survey information supplied by the respond- tems. Light rail systems operate primarily at-grade to reduce ing agencies, the bottom grouping is 2003 information taken capital investment. Operating speeds increase by protecting from the 2003 NTD. Because the NTD does not ask rail sys- the at-grade tracks as much as practical from automobile traf- tems to report certain information that was believed to be fic. In the best case scenario, light rail trains operate on a ded- important for this synthesis, some sections of the lower group- icated right-of-way with only occasional street crossings. A ing are blank. number of LRT systems achieve this. Buffalo has the highest percentage of track-miles in subway by far (78%); more than Table 1 shows information on LRV maintenance. Each half of all systems have no subway segments. system's operating environment typically determines the physical design of its LRV: length, width, articulation, max- Some of the factors that influence guideway maintenance imum speed, and floor level. Nevertheless, most light rail include: systems use an articulated LRV design. With recent vehicles there has generally been an increase in the maximum operat- Climate conditions--Significant range of temperatures ing speeds of LRVs, from 50 mph to 65 mph. A recent devel- or substantial amounts of rain and snow may result in opment in vehicle design is the introduction of the low-floor more maintenance. railcar, allowing passengers to board the vehicle without Operating conditions--Significant on-street running in climbing steps. mixed traffic or on/in structure constrains maintenance of trackway and traction power systems. A number of factors may influence the level of LRV Age of infrastructure--Older systems require more maintenance; among them are: maintenance than newer ones because more things wear out over time. Operating environment--more street running results Labor terms--Work rules may affect efficiency and in more stop-and-go operation and more accidents. high worker turnover results in a less experienced staff. Extreme weather conditions may also result in more Budget constraints--Systems often experience budget maintenance. constraints that limit maintenance performed.

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TABLE 1 VEHICLE MAINTENANCE CHARACTERISTICS AND COSTS Total Annual Revenue Maintenance Cost per Maintenance Cost per Vehicle Revenue-Mile Average Age of Fleet Vehicles Operated in Mechanical Failures Annual Labor Hours Vehicle Operated in (maximum speed)* Mechanical Failure Miles per Revenue Maximum Service for Inspection and Maximum Service Revenue Vehicle- Total Active Fleet Equipment Type Year of Start-Up Revenue-Miles Annual Vehicle Annual Vehicle Maintenance Maintenance System Expenses (Years) FY2004 STATISTICS FROM STUDY SURVEY (2004$) (2004$) (2004$) Buffalo 1985 HL/LL (?) 23 27 19 555 765,082 1,379 39,520 $2,249,087 $2.94 $97,786 Cleveland 1989a ART (55 mph) 16 48 22 90 954,081 10,601 64,254 $2,391,337 $2.51 $149,459 Dallas 1996 95 ART, 1 LF (65 mph) 84 95 6 135 5,372,890 39,799 94,556 $7,917,463 $1.47 $94,256 Denverc 1994 ART (55 mph) 45 49 5 0 3,764,205 0 76,222 NP NP NP Houston 2003 LF (?) 15 17 1 119 478,398 4,020 19,741 $2,525,300 $5.28 $168,353 Philadelphia 1980b not-ART (?) 115 141 24 825 1,598,000 1,937 131,000 $10,800,000 $6.76 $93,913 Pittsburgh 1985 not provided 48 70 10.9 454 1,224,844 2,698 199,360 $9,537,598 $7.79 $198,700 Portland 1986 30% HF, 70% LF (?) 83 95 9.2 1,990 6,775,188 3,405 107,440 $13,406,170 $1.98 $161,520 Salt Lake City 1999 ART (55 mph) 39 46 5.6 72 2,355,429 32,714 49,213 $3,680,000 $1.56 $94,359 San Diego 1979 ART (50 mph) 83 123 14.2 150 7,078,660 47,191 153,574 $8,056,896 $1.14 $97,071 San Francisco 1912 ART (?) 110 151 4 2,583 5,616,212 2,174 791,932 NP NP NP FY2003 STATISTICS FROM NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE (2003$) (2003$) (2003$) Baltimore 1992 -- 49 53 8.3 96 2,634,883 27,447 83,677 $4,935,321 $1.87 $100,721 Boston 1890 -- 155 199 19.1 1,190 5,689,117 4,781 345,280 $15,790,689 $2.78 $101,875 Hudson-Bergen 2002 -- 15 29 14.6 N/A 704,864 N/A N/A $6,142,483 $8.71 $409,499 Los Angeles 1990 -- 69 102 8.8 2,489 5,781,961 2,323 384,591 $16,255,679 $2.81 $235,590 Newark 1930 -- 12 16 34.5 45 478,913 10,643 136,146 $4,927,404 $10.29 $410,617 Sacramento 1988 -- 32 36 13.9 40 2,128,498 53,212 160,524 $6,000,779 $2.82 $187,524 Santa Clara 1988 -- 41 66 15.6 98 2,466,130 25,165 191,360 $12,406,691 $5.03 $302,602 St. Louis 1991 -- 49 65 5.1 297 5,156,197 17,361 84,850 $6,111,400 $1.19 $124,722 Notes: -- = NTD did not ask for this information; NP = not provided by agency; N/A = not available (proprietary). *Notes on equipment type: ART = articulated; LF = low floor; HF = high floor; HL/LL high level, low level. a Cleveland inaugurated its rebuilt LRT system in 1989. b Philadelphia received its rebuilt LRV fleet in 1980. In addition, Philadelphia uses single-ended cab cars in its Central Division, double-ended cabs in its Surburban Division. c Denver's information is from 2003.

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TABLE 2 OPERATING ENVIRONMENT AND GUIDEWAY MAINTENANCE CHARACTERISTICS AND COSTS Mixed Flow with Cross Track-Miles At-Grade, Track-Miles At-Grade, Track-Miles At-Grade, Average Temperature Average Precipitation Track-Miles in Open Maintenance Costs Maintenance Costs Maintenance Costs Maintenance Costs Track-Miles on Fill Directional Route- with Cross Traffic Total Track-Miles Weather Factor* Track-Miles on Annual Power Annual Power per Track-Mile per Track-Mile Track-Miles in Annual Track Annual Track System High/Low (F) Exclusive Structure (inches) Subway Traffic Miles Cut FY2004 STATISTICS FROM STUDY SURVEY (2004$) (2004$) (2004$) (2004$) Buffalo 81/18 39 4 0 2.8 0 0 0 9.7 0 12.4 6.2 $400,000 $32,258 $875,000 $70,565 Cleveland 83/19 47 4 12.5 14.5 0 0.9 2.0 0 3.1 33.0 16.5 $1,755,000 $53,182 $985,000 $29,848 Dallas 96/34 33 2 79.4 2.5 0 11.5 0 6.2 1.8 101.5 44.5 $1,915,208 $18,869 $6,465,415 $63,699 Denver 88/16 17 3 15.2 4.3 0 3.4 7.0 0 2.2 32.1 31.6 NP NP NP NP Houston 94/41 48 2 0 19.8 0.2 0 0 0 0 20.0 15.3 $415,211 $20,761 $377,255 $18,863 Philadelphia 87/24 41 4 21.0 145.0 0 0 0 4.0 0 171.0 69.3 NP NP NP NP Pittsburgh 83/20 37 4 36.8 0.3 4.7 3.0 -- 4.0 0 48.8 34.8 $1,781,000 $36,496 $2,320,000 $47,541 Portland 80/34 35 2 14.0 50.0 5.0 2.6 1.0 6.0 10.0 88.6 81.3 $1,946,600 $21,971 $1,863,000 $21,027 Salt Lake City 92/20 16 3 26.3 12.6 0 0 0 0 -- 38.9 19.5 $368,800 $9,481 $75,600 $1,943 San Diego 77/48 10 1 0 80.2 8.0 6.0 1.8 0 0.6 96.6 96.6 $1,176,500 $12,179 $1,011,750 $10,474 San Francisco 70/46 20 1 5.0 6.0 48.0 0 0 15.0 0 74.0 72.9 NP NP NP NP FY2003 STATISTICS FROM NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE (2003$) (2003$) (2003$) (2003$) Baltimore 88/24 41 4 37.0 10.0 3.0 2.0 0 0 0 52.0 57.6 -- -- -- -- Boston 82/22 43 4 29.0 29.0 2.0 4.0 0 14.0 0 78.0 51.0 -- -- -- -- Hudson-Bergen 85/26 46 4 11.0 7.0 2.0 0 0 0.0 0 20.0 16.6 -- -- -- -- Los Angeles 82/48 14 1 4.0 31.0 0 12.0 24.0 0 1.0 87.0 82.4 -- -- -- -- Newark 85/26 46 4 6.0 0 0 0 0 3.0 0 9.0 8.3 -- -- -- -- Sacramento 93/38 17 1 9.9 19.4 6.8 1.8 1.5 0 0 39.4 40.7 -- -- -- -- Santa Clara 70/46 20 1 12.0 37.0 0 1.0 7.0 1.0 0 58.0 58.4 -- -- -- -- St. Louis 89/21 37 4 44.0 1.0 0 5.0 10.0 11.0 3.0 74.0 68.8 -- -- -- -- Notes: -- = NTD did not ask for this information; NP = not provided by agency. Shaded areas indicate estimated by agency. *Weather factor: 1 = no freezing, little precipitation; 2 = no freezing, more precipitation; 3 = freezing, little precipitation; 4 = freezing, more precipitation; 5 = very cold in winter.

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TABLE 3 STATION AND FACILITIES CHARACTERISTICS AND MAINTENANCE COSTS Maintenance Facilities Maintenance Facilities Annual Maintenance Stations on Structure Stations in Open Cut Maintenance Costs Maintenance Costs Maintenance Costs Stations in Subway Stations At-Grade Number of TVMs Cost per Facility Done In-House? Annual Cost for Annual Station Annual Station Number of Rail Stations on Fill Cost per TVM Total Stations Annual TVM Maintenance System per Station FY2004 STATISTICS FROM STUDY SURVEY (2004$) (2004$) (2004$) (2004$) (2004$) (2004$) Buffalo 7 0 0 0 8 15 $1,000,000 $66,667 42 $400,000 $9,524 Yes 1 $250,000 $250,000 Cleveland 31 0 0 3 0 34 $1,300,000 $38,235 13 $20,000 $1,538 Yes 1 $291,000 $291,000 Dallas 29 4 0 1 1 35 $3,852,202 $110,063 120 $410,338 $3,419 Yes 1 $253,925 $253,925 Denver 24 0 0 0 0 24 NP NP 42 $115,757 $2,756 Yes 1 NP NP Houston 16 0 0 0 0 16 $704,172 $44,032 58 $443,747 $7,651 Yes 1 $441,306 $441,306 Philadelphia 9 0 0 0 15 24 NP NP 0 N/A N/A N/A 3 $400,000 $133,333 Pittsburgh 0 21 0 0 3 24 $1,200,000 $50,000 0 N/A N/A N/A 1 NP NP Portland 58 1 1 1 1 62 $2,730,000 $44,032 183 $1,144,500 $6,254 Yes 2 $1,178,000 $589,000 Salt Lake City 23 0 0 0 0 23 $345,000 $15,000 62 $180,000 $2,903 Yes 1 $260,000 $260,000 San Diego* 47 2 0 0 0 49 $2,229,000 $45,490 119 $967,000 $8,126 Yes 2 $1,341,300 $670,650 San Francisco 0 0 0 0 9 9 NP NP NP NP NP NP 2 NP NP FY2003 STATISTICS FROM NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE (2003$) (2003$) (2003$) (2003$) (2003$) (2003$) Baltimore -- -- -- -- -- 32 -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 -- -- Boston -- -- -- -- -- 78 -- -- -- -- -- -- 4.3 -- -- Hudson-Bergen -- -- -- -- -- 15 -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 -- -- Los Angeles -- -- -- -- -- 36 -- -- -- -- -- -- 2 -- -- Newark -- -- -- -- -- 11 -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 -- -- Sacramento -- -- -- -- -- 29 -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 -- -- Santa Clara -- -- -- -- -- 44 -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 -- -- St. Louis -- -- -- -- -- 26 -- -- -- -- -- -- 2 -- -- Notes: -- = NTD did not ask for this information; NP = not provided by agency; N/A = not available; TVM = ticket vending machine. Shaded areas indicate estimated by agency. *San Diego's Facilities Maintenance is included in Station Maintenance and Equipment Maintenance is included in MOW, LRV, and Facilities.