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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION State departments of transportation (DOTs), traffic man- perspective on COOP practices in transportation and other agement centers (TMCs), and public transportation rail and industries. bus agencies differ considerably in their scope of operations, equipment, personnel, and training practices; however, all transportation agencies are committed to providing critical BACKGROUND services during emergencies. These guidelines have been Transportation operations can be interrupted by a range of developed to help transportation agencies, whether state naturally occurring and human-caused emergencies, includ- DOTs, TMCs, or transit agencies, to develop Continuity of Operations (COOP) plans. COOP planning offers transpor- ing severe weather, fires, power outages, telecommunication tation agencies a way to define activities that must be per- failures, workplace violence, and terrorist attacks. Many of formed if an emergency denies access to essential operating the emergencies that can disrupt transportation operations are and maintenance facilities, vehicle fleets, systems, and senior as follows: management and technical personnel. Executing these plans Naturally occurring helps transportation agencies ensure the performance of crit- ical services, even in an operating environment that is threat- Tornadoes; ened, diminished, or incapacitated. High winds; These guidelines discuss recommended content for a Electrical storms; transportation agency COOP plan. After a brief introduction Ice storms; and description of existing federal requirements for COOP Snowstorms and blizzards; planning, these guidelines cover the following topics: Floods; Earthquakes; Starting COOP planning; Naturally occurring epidemics; Identifying system capabilities to deal with emergencies Landslides; and vulnerabilities within the agency; Hurricanes; Identifying essential functions of the agency; Typhoons; Identifying key personnel, delegations of emergency Tropical storms; authority, and orders of succession; Tsunamis; Determining vital records, systems, and equipment and Wildfires; a process to safeguard and update these items; Droughts; Evaluating needs and selecting an alternate work site; Dust/wind storms; Developing an effective interoperable communications Human-caused--intentional plan; and Misuse of resources; Testing and executing the COOP plan and revising it Security breaches; periodically as necessary. Theft; Fraud or embezzlement; The guidelines in this report are supplemented with elec- Fire or arson; tronic versions of all COOP planning worksheets, the COOP Vandalism; plan template in Microsoft Word, a series of brochures for use Sabotage: external and internal actors; in explaining the COOP planning process to employees, a Workplace violence; draft PowerPoint presentation that can be customized and pre- Bomb threats and other threats of violence; sented to transportation executive leadership, and more than Terrorist assaults using explosives, firearms, or con- 300 resource documents, organized in an electronic COOP ventional weapons; library. These resources are available at http://www.trb.org/ Terrorist assaults using chemical, biological, radio- SecurityPubs/ and provide additional references, support, and logical, or nuclear agents;