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25 evaluate its situation using a rational process developed responders, and transportation personnel and vendors know before the onset of the emergency and taking into account when essential functions will be performed, or when to expect various considerations that may not be identified or identifi- certain activities necessary to bring additional functions able in the emotionally charged environment surrounding the on line. unfolding emergency. Although some larger public transportation agencies and Table 6, a sample decision matrix, presents potential dis- TMCs provide 24/7 coverage, most transportation agencies ruptions resulting from emergencies classified in Emergency have pre-determined duty and non-duty hours. During a major Levels 1 through 5. Using these emergency levels and exam- emergency, even the largest public transportation agencies ples, the agency executive director or general manager, or a may not be able to sustain 24/7 operations. Therefore, the duly designated successor, will activate or partially activate COOP team needs to establish reasonable operational hours the COOP plan. The decision matrix focuses on how the for the COOP plan. emergency may affect the capabilities of the transportation Depending on the essential functions provided, the avail- agency to provide its essential functions. To remain flexible ability of transportation personnel, vendors, and contractors, in the various situations that could trigger activation or par- and the anticipated needs of emergency responders, the COOP tial activation of the COOP plan, this matrix provides gen- team can select in advance a schedule that supports the local, eral guidance. Recommended effects and decisions may be regional, and/or state needs for essential functions. At the modified based on the actual emergencies. Agencies can cre- same time, the team must recognize the limitations of the ate their own matrices based on this example. transportation agency as a disrupted organization. Some agencies adopt existing holiday, weekend, or seasonal hours of operation; while others may add limited nighttime hours, HOURS OF OPERATION or begin and end earlier in the day. Some agencies may specify a preferred schedule and then In addition to developing a process for activating the revise it based on the conditions of the actual emergency COOP plan, the COOP team is advised to develop hours of experienced. Other agencies may select different hours of operation. Hours of operation will let the public, emergency operations for different categories of essential functions. TABLE 6 Sample decision matrix Level of Impact on Agency and COOP Decision Emergency 1 Impact: Disruption of up to 12 hours, with little effect on services or impact to essential functions or critical systems. Example: Major accident on highway or transit system. Decision: No COOP activation required. 2 Impact: Disruption of 12 to 72 hours, with minor impact on essential functions. Example: Computer virus, small fire or moderate flooding. Decision: Limited COOP activation, depending on transportation agency requirements. 3 Impact: Disruption to one or two essential functions or to a vital system for no more than three days. Example: Power outage, heightened Homeland Security Advisory System threat level. Decision: May require partial COOP activation to move certain personnel to an alternate facility or location in the primary facility for less than a week. 4 Impact: Disruption to one or two essential functions or to the entire agency with potential of lasting for more than three days but less than two weeks. Example: Snow/ice storm; hurricane, workplace violence, major telecommunications failure or major power outage. Decision: May require partial COOP plan activation. For example, orders of succession for some key personnel may be required; in addition, movement of some personnel to an alternate work site or location in the primary facility for more than a week may be necessary. Personnel not supporting essential functions may be instructed not to report to work, or be re-assigned to other activities. 5 Impact: Disruption to the entire agency with a potential for lasting at least two weeks. Example: Explosion in/contamination of primary facility; major fire or flooding; earthquake, tsunami. Decision: COOP plan activation. May require activation of orders of succession for some key personnel. May require movement of many, if not all, essential personnel to an alternate work site for more than two weeks. Personnel not supporting essential functions may be instructed not to report to work, or be re-assigned to other activities.