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11 CHAPTER TWO SUMMARY OF EXISTING PROGRAMS OVERVIEW OF BICYCLE AND TRANSIT Bicycle on Rail INTEGRATION PROGRAMS A number of light rail, heavy rail, and commuter rail systems Many transit agencies currently provide bicycle-related ser- accommodate bicycles by allowing them inside train cars. vices. The 2002 National Transit Database includes 548 agen- One method of accommodation is to require bicyclists to cies in the United States with service area populations of board designated rail cars and remain with their bikes in des- more than 20,000 (23). According to the survey conducted ignated areas. Agencies reported that between 2 and 16 bicy- for this report and (21), at least 101 U.S. tran- cles could be accommodated per train in this manner, depend- sit agencies offer bicycle-on-bus or bicycle-on-rail services. ing on restrictions. Some rail cars have special bike racks or An even larger number of agencies provide bicycle parking hooks where bicyclists can store their bikes (see Figure 4). One at transit stops and stations. responding transit agency provides a designated bicycle car with space for 17 bicycles in each train set (see the case study The 56 transit agencies that participated in the on-line sur- on the San Joaquin Regional Rail System in chapter four). vey offered many types of bicycle services, including bicycle racks on the front of buses (Figure 3), bicycle racks in rail cars, It is common for transit agencies to prohibit bicycle access bicycle-on-vanpool vehicles, bicycle storage space on ferries, on train cars during peak travel times. This is done to reduce and bicycle racks and lockers at stations. The general cate- congestion on the train and to reduce friction in boarding and gories of bicycle and transit integration are described here. exiting the train. An independent analysis of 47 transit agen- cies found that only a few urban rail systems in the United States prohibit bicycles at all times (22). The same analysis showed a nearly even divide between agencies that restrict Bicycle on Bus bicycle access during peak hours and those that allow bicy- Bicycles are accommodated on buses in several different cles at all times. There are no time restrictions on bicycle ways. The method used by most transit agencies is to mount access for a bicycle rack on the front of the bus. Front-mounted racks commonly carry two bicycles; however, more agencies are Five of 13 (38%) heavy rail systems, experimenting with racks that can hold three to five bicycles. Ten of 21 (48%) light rail systems, and Customers are responsible for loading and securing their Seven of 16 (44%) commuter rail systems. bikes on the racks, and the racks can be folded up against the front of the bus when they are not in use. Bicycle on Ferry, Vanpool, and Taxi Some local bus services allow passengers to bring their Although bicycle-on-bus and bicycle-on-rail services are bicycles on board. However, this method of bicycle accom- offered by many public transit agencies, other types of bicy- modation is often restricted to prevent crowding. Bus drivers cle and transit integration include bicycle-on-ferry, bicycle- are typically given the authority to decide when to allow on-vanpool, bicycle-on-bus services in mountain communi- bicycles on the bus, which tends to be when available bus ties, and accommodating bicycles along with on-demand bike racks are full, after dark, or when bus service is infre- transit services. quent (bicycles are often allowed on board if the bus is the last bus on the route or if there will be a long wait before the next bus). Bicycle Parking and Staffed Bicycle Parking Some commuter buses are equipped with extra storage Bicycle parking includes bicycle racks, bicycle lockers, and space for luggage and other packages. Several agencies that staffed bicycle parking facilities (also referred to as bike sta- responded to the survey allow bicycles to be stored in this tions). These facilities help organize where bicycles are parked, space, typically located in a compartment below the floor of reducing the clutter of bikes that are locked beside fences, the bus. trees, signs, etc. Bicycle parking is often installed at train sta-