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18 CHAPTER THREE INTEGRATION OF BICYCLES WITH BUS TRANSIT SERVICES Bicycle-on-bus service provides bicyclists with several ben- more than two-bike bus racks, which adds to the swept area efits, including the convenience of riding a bicycle to a bus of the bus. In addition, the three-bike bus racks generally stop and to the final destination and the flexibility to take the have less space between the front of the bus and the closest bus in bad weather, after dark, or if a bicyclist needs to travel bike on the rack, which can cause interference with wind- through an area with steep hills, heavy traffic, or other areas shield wipers. They also tend to be wider than two-bike bus that are barriers to bicycling (e.g., for people who bicycle to racks, which may interfere with headlights and turn signal and from work). lights on certain types of buses. Although these benefits are similar to the benefits of bike- Most agencies prefer front-mounted bus bike racks over on-rail services, bus systems typically have more routes, serve rear-mounted racks. In 1976, San Diego Transit installed bike more neighborhoods, and provide access to more destinations. racks on the back of 18 buses and found several problems Because most buses use exterior-mounted racks, there is no with this configuration. Rear-mounted racks blocked access impact on bus passenger capacity. In addition, less effort is to the engine at the back of the bus, making it difficult to ser- usually required to place a bike on a bus bike rack. Although vice the engine. The rear-mounted racks also caused problems a bike can be loaded on a bus immediately at a bus stop, trains because drivers could not see the racks and monitor the safety are accessed from a platform, which often requires the bicy- and security of bicyclists as they loaded and unloaded their clist to carry the bike up or down a staircase, escalator, or ele- bikes (6). Some agencies also experienced problems with vator and through some type of turnstile. bikes being dirtied by exhaust from the back of the bus. Rear- mounted racks with a capacity of five bikes are currently Bicycle-on-bus service is offered by transit agencies of all being used by Mountain Express, a small agency (17 buses) sizes, located in all parts of the United States and Canada (see in Crested Butte, Colorado, to provide extra capacity during Table 3). The majority of the agencies that participated in this summer months. These buses have a video camera that shows study offered some type of bicycle access on their local bus the driver the back of the bus. Mountain Express provides systems. In contrast to 10 years ago, very few agencies require front-mounted bike racks year-round. training or fees to use their bike-on-bus services. Some transit agencies allow bicycles to be taken on board the bus. However, many agencies restrict bicycle access in BICYCLE STORAGE AND TRANSPORT the bus to prevent overcrowding. These agencies often give bus drivers the discretion to decide whether bicycles are Agencies offering bicycle-on-bus service commonly allow allowed inside the bus. Drivers are more likely to allow bicy- bicyclists to store their bikes on racks mounted on the front cles inside the bus when the racks are full, at night, or when of the bus. These front-mounted bus bike racks often have service is infrequent (when the bus is the last bus of the room for two bicycles, although three-, four-, and five-bicycle evening on a particular route or there is a long wait before the racks have also been used by several agencies (see Figure 10). next bus). The bike rack folds upright on the front of the bus when it is not in use. When bicyclists load their bikes, they pull the rack down so that it is parallel to the ground and secure the bike Bus Bike Racks with Capacity for Three Bicycles on the rack before boarding the bus. Although folding racks Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority--Clearwater, Florida help reduce the overhang distance added to the bus (com- pared with racks that do not have the flexibility to fold), the The Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority (PSTA) first installed front- folded racks typically add 6 to 9 in. of length to the bus, mounted bicycle racks on its buses in 1998. Each of these racks pro- which requires additional storage space at the bus yard. vided space for two bicycles. As more bicyclists took advantage of the service, it became more common for both spaces on the bicycle rack to be full, resulting in bicyclists having to wait for the next bus. In Three-bike bus racks are becoming more common because 2004, PSTA addressed this capacity problem by mounting racks with they provide additional capacity for bicyclists (see the Pinellas space for three bicycles on the front of its buses (see Figure 11). The current bus fleet includes 57 buses with three-bicycle racks and 111 Suncoast Transit Authority case study in this chapter). How- buses with two-bicycle racks. PSTA tries to provide buses with the ever, these racks tend to extend the bus overhang distance three-bicycle racks on routes with more bicyclists.

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19 TABLE 3 BICYCLE-ON-BUS SERVICES Type of Service Transit Agencies (Location) Front-mounted racks that can AMTRAN (Altoona, PA) hold two bicycles Ann Arbor Transportation Authority (Ann Arbor, MI) Brownsville Urban System (Brownsville, TX) Calgary Transit (Calgary, Alberta) Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority (LYNX) (Orlando, FL) Central Ohio Transit Authority (Columbus, OH) Chicago Transit Authority (Chicago, IL) City of Visalia--Visalia City Coach (Visalia, CA) Clallam Transit System (Port Angeles, WA) Fort Smith Transit (Fort Smith, AR) Grand River Transit (Kitchener, Ontario) Grand Valley Transit (Grand Junction, CO) Hillsborough Area Regional Transit (HARTline) (Tampa, FL)* Kamloops Transit System (Kamloops, British Columbia) Kelowna Regional Transit System (Kelowna, British Columbia) Long Beach Transit (Long Beach, CA) Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Los Angeles, CA) Maryland Transit Administration (Baltimore, MD) Metropolitan Transit Authority (Los Angeles, CA) New Jersey Transit Corp. (NJ TRANSIT) (Newark, NJ) Orange County Transportation Authority (Orange, CA) Penticton Transit System (Penticton, British Columbia) Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority (PSTA) (Clearwater, FL) Regional Transportation District (RTD) (Denver, CO) RochesterGenesee Regional Transportation Authority (Rochester, NY) San Diego Metropolitan Transit System (San Diego, CA) Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (Philadelphia, PA) Space Coast Area Transit (Cocoa, FL) Springs Transit (Colorado Springs, CO) Tompkins Consolidated Area Transit (Ithaca, NY) TransLink (Greater Vancouver, British Columbia) Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District (TriMet) (Portland, OR) Utah Transit Authority (Salt Lake City, UT) Victoria Regional Transit System (Victoria, British Columbia) Washington Area Metropolitan Transit Authority (Washington, DC) Whistler & Valley Express (Whistler, British Columbia)** Front-mounted racks that can Broward County Transit (Pompano Beach, FL) hold three bicycles Clallam Transit System (Port Angeles, WA) Long Beach Transit (Long Beach, CA) Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority (PSTA) (Clearwater, FL) Oversized bike racks on the front Mountain Express (Crested Butte, CO) and back of buses. Each rack carries four or five bikes Bikes may be brought on board Grand River Transit (Kitchener, Ontario) the bus at any time Bikes may be brought on board Clallam Transit System (Port Angeles, WA) the bus at driver's discretion Kamloops Transit System (Kamloops, British Columbia) and/or under certain conditions Orange County Transportation Authority (Orange, CA) Regional Transportation District (RTD) (Denver, CO) Space Coast Area Transit (Cocoa, FL) Utah Transit Authority (Salt Lake City, UT) *Bicyclists must obtain a permit to use the bus bicycle racks. **Racks are in place from mid-April until mid-November, when they are replaced by ski racks.