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22 TABLE 6 CHANGES IN BIKE-ON-BUS USE OVER TIME Year Bike-on-Bus Transit Agency (Location) Service Started Description of Changes in Use Ann Arbor Transportation Authority 2002 Increased from 11,145 to 13,045 (Ann Arbor, MI) bicyclists (17%) in second year. Hillsborough Area Regional Transit 1995 33.5% increase from FY 2003 to FY 2004. (HARTline) (Tampa, FL) Mountain Express 1980s Bikes increased from 5,400 to 7,000 (Crested Butte, CO) between 1998 and 2004. Penticton Transit System 1998 Use has increased gradually since the (Penticton, British Columbia) racks were introduced. The system now carries about 10 bikes per day. Regional Transportation District (RTD) 1992 Summer 2000 (local and limited service) (Denver, CO) = 1,559 bike boardings. Summer 2004 (local and limited service) = 2,614 boardings. Increase in bike boardings by 68%.* Tompkins Consolidated Area Transit 1996 Systemwide use increased from 500 uses (Ithaca, NY) a month to 1,500 uses a month during the first three years. Note: Includes agencies that responded with specific numbers. *Weekday, single-day counts. more about it. For example, Hillsborough Area Regional COSTS Transit (HARTline, Tampa, Florida) found that drivers were much more accepting of bicycle racks when they learned that Most agencies paid between $500 and $1,000 to equip each the cyclist is required to load his or her own bike and the bus with a bike rack. This cost varies depending on the model driver has no role in the loading process. Initially, Grand and quantity of racks that were purchased. A majority of the River Transit bus operators expressed concern that they agencies that provided bicycle-on-bus service (25 of 32) would take on personal liability for any damage to bicycles retrofitted their buses with racks. The other seven purchased caused by using the racks. They also expressed concern their bike racks along with new buses, which saved them the about delays to boarding time. The agency helped mitigate labor costs of retrofitting the racks. these worries with demonstrations that showed how easy the bus bike racks were to use. None of the responding agencies The amount of staff time spent on bicycle-on-transit pro- needed to change route schedules to accommodate additional grams depended on the size of the agency. Although most small- and medium-sized bus systems dedicated between a time for bicycle loading and unloading. few hours and one week of staff time per year to keeping the bike-on-bus services operating smoothly, some larger transit agencies used full-time staff to run their bicycle programs. Small Transit Agency Bicycle-on-Bus Program Fort Smith Transit--Fort Smith, Arkansas Fort Smith Transit serves the city of Fort Smith [population 80,000, area 186 km2 (72 mi2)], which is located near the Arkansas River in western Arkansas. In 2002, the transit agency added bicycle racks to its entire fleet of 17 fixed-route buses for approximately $10,000. According to Fort Smith Transit, the type of rack that they purchased is easy for bicyclists to use, because one bar can lock the wheels of the bike in place (see Figures 12 and 13). According to the agency, the bus bike racks are typically used every day. Agency representatives have not received any complaints about the bus bicycle racks. After Fort Smith Transit installed its bicycle racks, the local parks department created a plan for bicycling routes in the city to further support bicycle transportation. One challenge that Fort Smith Transit faced after first purchas- ing the racks was having the flexibility to switch racks between buses used for fixed-route service (which provides bike racks) and demand-response service (which does not provide bike racks). To solve this problem, the agency's service department designed and installed a short extension to the bike rack that allowed the task of switching racks to be done in less than 5 min. FIGURE 12 Front-mounted bus bike rack--Fort Smith Transit.