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25 CHAPTER FOUR INTEGRATION OF BICYCLES WITH RAIL TRANSIT SERVICES Bicycles are accommodated on rail transit in a variety of ways, ON-BOARD BICYCLE STORAGE depending on the rail transit mode and provider. Several agen- AND TRANSPORT cies that participated in this study offered bicycle-on-light- rail, bicycle-on-heavy-rail, and bicycle-on-commuter-rail ser- Once on board the rail car, bicycles are commonly stored on vices. APTA definitions of each mode are as follows: racks inside the car or are attended by the individual bicy- clists. At least two bicycles per car are commonly allowed and, in rare cases, entire cars are dedicated to bicycle use. Light rail--lightweight, generally electric passenger rail Many light rail vehicles provide storage for several bicycles cars on fixed rails, usually running close to traffic; often in each car, commonly by allowing bicyclists to stand with the alongside traffic. bicycle in available spaces. This storage method is employed Heavy rail--electric passenger rail cars, operating on by the bulk of light rail providers, as shown in Table 7. Light separate rights-of-way, at high speeds and with high rail cars may also feature racks or hooks for bicycle storage, volume. as can be found in Portland's TriMet cars. On board Santa Commuter rail--electric or diesel passenger rail cars Clara Valley Transportation Authority (San Jose, California) traveling between urban and suburban areas, on sepa- light rail, four bicycles are accommodated with racks and an rate rights-of-way, with a limited number of stops in the additional two bicycles may be attended to by bicyclists urban center (24). standing in the center of the car. Light rail cars can either be accessed from a platform or area on the street, enabling cyclists to use light rail without Dedicated Bicycle Rail Car entering a station (see Figure 14). Some light rail cars feature Altamont Commuter Express (ACE), San Joaquin Regional Rail low floor designs that are level with the platform. Others, Commission--Stockton, California such as San Diego's Trolley, require cyclists to carry their bicycle up stairs to access the inside of the car. Some newer With a total fleet of 24 commuter rail cars, ACE has dedicated one rail light rail cars are being designed with bike hooks, bike racks, car per train to carrying bicycles (see Figure 16). The dedicated bicy- cle rail cars serve commuters traveling between San Joaquin Valley and/or designated areas for cyclists (for examples see Table 7 suburbs and the employment centers of Silicon Valley. ACE's dedi- and Figure 15). cated bicycle rail cars were retrofitted to accommodate 17 bicycles per car, with an additional 2 to 4 bicycles allowed as overflow on the remaining rail cars (see Figure 17). Access to heavy rail services can be challenging to bicy- clists because heavy rail is generally located along separate ACE's administrator, the San Joaquin Regional Rail Commission, rights-of-way with boardings limited to station stops. To pass estimates that 8,000 bicyclists are served by this program annually. through fare gates or turnstile areas into the paid ticket area, Dedicating bicycle rail cars has helped reduce conflicts between cyclists and regular transit riders. Regular passengers can move bicyclists may be required to use specific access gates or to use more freely because bicycles use one specific part of the train; bicy- street level elevators that go directly to the platform. Many clists appreciate having a specific storage space that is designed to heavy rail systems prohibit bicyclists from using escalators to meet their needs. Accommodating bicycles has extended the reach of ACE by enabling riders to commute to employment locations not access platform areas. In addition, bicycles are prohibited on located directly along the rail lines, saving those riders the time and most heavy rail systems during peak hours to prevent over- expense of driving a car. crowding. Once on board the heavy rail cars, bicyclists are accommodated in a manner similar to other rail transit modes, Heavy rail cars may feature a similar storage system, most often with designated areas or racks for bicycles (for allowing bicyclists to stand in open spaces, often near door examples see Table 8). areas, as space allows. Heavy rail cars may also be equipped to allow bicyclists the use of available wheelchair fasteners Commuter rail cars are generally accessed from an open for secure storage. Commuter rail systems may provide ded- platform. On board the commuter rail cars bicycles are accom- icated bicycle rail cars, thereby allocating separate spaces for modated in a variety of ways, such as placing bicycles in des- bicyclists and regular transit riders. Commuter rail systems ignated floor areas, in storage closets or bicycle racks, or in may also accommodate bicycles as light and heavy rail do, a specific rail car designated for bicycle storage (for exam- by allowing several bicycles in each car except during com- ples see Table 9). mute hours.