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26 wheel of each bicycle is supported by a hook, and the bottom wheel is placed in a restraining guide either on the side wall or on the bot- tom of a flip-up seat. Trains on the River LINE consist of one or two cars; therefore, they have space to hold a maximum of 6 or 12 bicycles. NJ TRANSIT began allowing bicycles on board its regional com- muter trains as an amenity in 1992; expanding the service to all com- muter lines in 2000. At the same time NJ TRANSIT discontinued a bicycle permit requirement, after experience demonstrated that the agency had no significant issues in having "bikes on board." There is no charge for bringing bicycles on board, but there are peak-period, peak-direction restrictions on the very busy lines in northern New Jer- sey. Presently, all of NJ TRANSIT's 860 commuter rail cars (on 11 lines statewide) and 65 light rail cars (on three lines) accommodate bicycles, as do half of its 2,000 buses. However, the new River LINE FIGURE 14 Light rail accessible without having to enter service has been shown to attract the greatest proportion of bicy- clists. An informal assessment by the Bicycle Coalition of Greater station--Twin Cities Metro Transit. (Source: Michael Jackson, Philadelphia during the line's first summer showed an average of 1.5 Maryland DOT.) bicycles on observed trains. Bicycle Hooks on New "River LINE" Diesel TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS AND DESIGN Light Rail New Jersey Transit Corp.--Newark, New Jersey Most light and heavy rail cars do not require complicated design changes to accommodate bicycles. Bicycles are gen- New Jersey Transit Corp. (NJ TRANSIT) provides hooks for hanging erally stored in empty wheelchair accessible space or held in bicycles on board its 55-km (34-mi) "River LINE" light rail service, inau- doorway areas. However, some transit agencies provide hooks gurated in March 2004 between Trenton and Camden in the Greater Philadelphia area (see Figure 18). The European-influenced design and racks on rail cars so that bicyclists do not need to attend of the diesel light rail cars on the River LINE incorporates a three- to their bicycles at all times. Portland's TriMet provides hook panel above flip-up seats in each end of the articulated cars hooks that suspend the bicycles vertically, resulting in a more (see Figure 19). This allows some of the interior space to be used flexibly. Although each car can store a maximum of six bikes, the efficient use of space. In southern New Jersey, NJ TRAN- space can also be used for baggage or by seated passengers (see SIT's light rail cars also have hooks. Commuter rail providers Figure 20). ACE/San Joaquin Regional Rail Commission (Stockton, California) and Caltrain, which runs from San Francisco, When the maximum bicycle storage space is needed, three through San Jose, to Gilroy, have designated bicycle cars. bicycles can be stored vertically at each end of the diesel light rail car. The bicycles are hung with handlebars at the top, offset a bit These rail cars were reconfigured to store bicycles by remov- vertically to overlap the handlebars and conserve space. The top ing seats. TABLE 7 BICYCLE-ON-RAIL SERVICES Type of Service Transit Agencies (Location) Bicyclists allowed to bring bikes on Calgary Transit (Calgary, Alberta) board and stand in designated Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Los Angeles, CA)* areas Maryland Transit Administration (Baltimore, MD) New Jersey Transit Corp. (NJ TRANSIT) (Newark, NJ) Regional Transportation District (RTD) (Denver, CO)** San Diego Metropolitan Transit System (San Diego, CA) TransLink (Greater Vancouver, British Columbia)* TriMet (Portland, OR) Bikes stored on racks inside each Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) (Santa Clara, CA) rail car Bikes stored on hooks inside each Metro Transit (Minneapolis, MN) rail car New Jersey Transit Corp. (NJ TRANSIT) (Newark, NJ) TriMet (Portland, OR) Bicyclists allowed on board trains Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Los Angeles, CA) and to stand in designated areas TransLink (Greater Vancouver, British Columbia) only during off-peak hours *Bicyclists are not allowed to bring bicycles on board during peak hours. **Bicyclists are allowed during peak hours if traveling in reverse peak direction only (away from Denver central business district in a.m.; toward Denver central business district in p.m.).