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29 Bicycles on Light Rail TriMet, Portland MAX Light Rail and Streetcar-- Portland, Oregon TriMet, which welcomes bicycles to the Portland light rail transit system (MAX) and the Portland Streetcar, has allowed bicycles on board since 1991 (MAX opened in September 1986). However, its level of accom- modation has evolved considerably over time. Today, TriMet views bicycling as a way to extend the reach of the transit system, because bikes can access areas that fixed-route transit does not presently serve. Previous restrictions on time of day and age have been lifted and permits were eliminated. These were both changed as a result of increasing comfort and experience with bicycles on MAX and improved bike racks for buses (see Figure 21). Recent innovations have included retrofitting light rail cars with bicy- cle hooks and permitting bikes in priority seating areas when not in use; helping to accommodate group outings to popular cycling destinations (see Figure 22). Parking for 72 bikes in on-demand bike lockers was FIGURE 19 European-influenced design incorporates a three- included as part of the Interstate MAX extension to North Portland (May hook panel above flip-up seats at each end of articulated rail 2004), bringing the total number of lockers to 340. Bike racks are also cars--New Jersey Transit Corp. provided on all buses. The biggest challenge is the crowds, as Portland's train cars are full in all directions during substantial portions of the day. As the rail hours can also have an impact on the satisfaction of bicy- system matures, TriMet is interested in pursuing additional bike park- clists. Although bicyclists provide positive feedback in ing at outlying transit centers to help alleviate demand for on-board bike racks. Added train frequency (currently about every 4 min in the response to bringing their bicycles aboard, they are often central business district during peak periods) has also helped to add frustrated by regulations prohibiting their use of rail transit capacity (see Figure 23). during peak hours. COSTS In several cases, rail transit providers reported little to no sig- nificant cost associated with accommodating bicycles in their rail cars. In the case of ACE's dedicated rail car, there was no net loss of seats to bicycles because the dedicated rail car simply accommodated bicycle storage previously located in other cars. CTA reported only the nominal cost of printing stickers for their heavy rail cars stating "two bicycles per car." Other agencies have been able to accommodate bicy- cles at a low cost by adapting existing equipment such as secure wheelchair racks for bicycle use. The amount of staff time dedicated to providing the bicycle-on-rail service ranged from 1.5 full-time equivalents in Denver to 40 h per year of staff time in San Diego. Because bike-on-rail passengers do not require delayed stops, like those necessary to allow bus riders time to attach or detach a bicycle to or from the exterior rack, there is little or no extra transit operation time devoted to allowing bicycles to get on and off of the rail cars. Bicycles on Heavy Rail Chicago Transit Authority--Chicago, Illinois With a broad base of support from the mayor's office, the DOT and various advocacy organizations, the CTA began accommodating bicycles on its heavy rail cars in 1999. Each CTA rail car provides FIGURE 20 When not used for bikes, space can be used for room for two bicycles (trains are generally four to eight cars long). As baggage or seated passengers--New Jersey Transit Corp. the program gained in popularity, CTA responded by increasing the