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34 CHAPTER SIX INTEGRATION OF BICYCLE PARKING AND TRANSIT Not all transit users have a need to take their bike on transit; Many different types of bike lockers have been used at tran- many would like to leave it at the transit station or stop. Bicy- sit stations. Lockers can be constructed in rectangular cubes, cle parking provides a critical link in the multimodal trans- wedges, and other shapes. Some can be opened through a door portation system. Bicycle racks and lockers allow bicyclists at one end; whereas others can be opened like the lid of a con- to store their bicycles at bus stops, train stations, park-and- tainer. Materials used for bike lockers include metal, perfo- ride lots, or other types of transit hubs so that they can con- rated metal, fiberboard, and fiberglass. The lockers can be tinue their trip on public transportation. As with transit riders secured by user-provided locks, swipe cards, electronic locks, who access stations in automobiles, parking is an essential or locks with master keys that are issued by transit agencies. component to making bicycling to transit feasible. Transit agencies try to avoid installing bicycle parking in Bicycle parking is provided by many transit agencies in locations that will restrict the flow of transit passengers. At the United States and Canada (for examples see Table 10). larger transit stops, many agencies attempt to place bike Bicycle lockers and indoor bicycle parking (both lockers and parking in view of the station manager. Only one of the agen- racks) have been installed at major transit hubs, such as train cies reported that they provided bike parking within a fare stations, park-and-ride lots, and bus terminals (see Figures 29 gate perimeter at transit stations; it is more common to pro- and 30). Bicycle racks require less space and provide shorter- vide parking facilities outside of stations. term parking; therefore, they can be provided at a greater number of locations throughout a transit system, such as local Some of the transit agencies interviewed for the survey bus stops. Several transit agencies that provided information tried to place their bike parking facilities in open locations with for this study attempt to make more bike parking available at good lighting that were covered by a roof or canopy. One tran- those stops and stations with greater demand. sit agency also mentioned that bike racks and lockers should not restrict maintenance activities, such as snow removal and Several communities, including Long Beach, San Fran- mowing. Space constraints may prevent installing bike park- cisco, Palo Alto, and Berkeley, California; Denver, Colorado; ing in certain places; however, some agencies believe that it and Seattle, Washington, have recently installed staffed bicy- was still important to provide bicycle parking, even when it cle parking facilities (also referred to as bike stations). Most was not in an optimal location. Signage is used by some of these bike stations are located at or within one to two agencies to direct bicyclists to parking facilities. blocks of transit hubs. These staffed facilities commonly offer services such as repairs and rentals. Some have restroom and A good resource for information about designing and changing facilities that are especially useful for commuter locating bike parking facilities is the Association of Pedes- bicyclists before and after work. Others offer transit-related trian and Bicycle Professionals Bike Parking Guidelines (25). services, such as car sharing. USAGE PATTERNS AND USER DEMOGRAPHICS TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS AND DESIGN Most transit agencies are aware of the number of bicycle Bicycle racks are the most common type of bike parking parking spaces that are available throughout their systems, facilities. Inverted U-shaped racks are often used at transit but only a small portion of these agencies collect data about stops and stations. Many agencies offer these racks for peo- how many bicyclists are using bike rack and locker facilities. ple who want to access their bicycle easily after a few hours. Of those that do, COTA conducts daily counts and RTD The agencies (or local jurisdictions) often install the racks in (Denver) collects weekly data. locations that are visible from the street and convenient for bicyclists to reach (e.g., those that do not require going up or One of the most extensive bicycle parking studies was a down steps or over barriers). Transit agencies tend to provide survey of bicyclists using racks and lockers near transit sta- lockers at transit stations where people often leave their bicy- tions in MiamiDade County, Florida. It found that nearly cles throughout the day or overnight so that they can have half of the bicyclists were 40 to 59 years old and almost 85% greater security from damage and theft. were male. The bicyclists also tended to have either low

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TABLE 10 35 BICYCLE PARKING FACILITIES Type of Service Transit Agencies (Location) Bicycle lockers at train stations King County Metro Transit (Seattle, WA) and/or bus terminals Long Beach Transit (Long Beach, CA) Long Island Railroad (Long Island Region, NY) Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Los Angeles, CA) New Jersey Transit Corp. (NJ TRANSIT) (Newark, NJ) Pace Suburban Bus Service (Arlington Heights, IL) Regional Transportation District (RTD) (Denver, CO) Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (Philadelphia, PA) TransLink (Greater Vancouver, British Columbia) TriMet (Portland, OR) Washington Area Metropolitan Transit Authority (Washington, DC) Washington State Ferries (Seattle, WA) Bicycle racks at train stations Chicago Transit Authority (Chicago, IL) and/or bus terminals City of VisaliaVisalia City Coach (Visalia, CA) Hillsborough Area Regional Transit (HARTline) (Tampa, FL) King County Metro Transit (Seattle, WA) Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Los Angeles, CA) New Jersey Transit Corp. (NJ TRANSIT) (Newark, NJ) Regional Transportation District (RTD) (Denver, CO) Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (Philadelphia, PA) Toronto Transit Commission (Toronto, Ontario) TransLink (Greater Vancouver, British Columbia) TriMet (Portland, OR) Washington Area Metropolitan Transit Authority (Washington, DC) Indoor (sheltered) bicycle parking Chicago Transit Authority (Chicago, IL) at train stations and/or bus terminals Bicycle lockers at park-and-ride Central Ohio Transit Authority (Columbus, OH) facilities New Jersey Transit Corp. (NJ TRANSIT) (Newark, NJ) Bicycle racks at bus stops AMTRAN (Altoona, PA) Chicago Transit Authority (Chicago, IL) Pace Suburban Bus Service (Arlington Heights, IL) Regional Transportation District (RTD) (Denver, CO) Ride Glenwood Springs (Glenwood Springs, CO) TransLink (Greater Vancouver, British Columbia) Staffed bicycle parking (bike Bay Area Rapid Transit (Fruitvale Station, Berkeley Station, stations) with other services Embarcadero Station) Caltrain (San Francisco, CA; Palo Alto, CA) King County Metro Transit (Seattle, WA) Long Beach Transit (Long Beach, CA) Regional Transportation District (Cherry Creek Bike Rack, Denver) FIGURE 29 Transit hub bicycle rack. (Source: Chicago Transit FIGURE 30 Transit hub bicycle locker. (Source: Regional Authority.) Transit DistrictDenver.)