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36 incomes (35% earning less than $20,000 per year) or high The bike racks and lockers can be purchased and maintained incomes (21% earning $70,000 or more per year). Lower- by the transit agency, by local transportation departments, local income bicyclists often reported bicycling to transit because bicycle organizations, or some combination of these groups. they did not have a car or needed to save money; higher- For example, CTA provides bicycle parking facilities along income bicyclists often bicycled for environmental and phys- with major transit station reconstruction projects, but the city of ical fitness reasons (13). Chicago DOT installs all other bicycle parking facilities inside and outside of stations. Local transportation management asso- King County Metro Transit (Seattle, Washington) also ciations, local parking authorities, and other groups rent bicy- reported surveying bicycle locker users about their trip char- cle lockers at NJ TRANSIT facilities. Both King County Metro acteristics and locker usage patterns. King County Metro Transit and TriMet contract with local bicycle organizations to Transit's survey found that all types of people used their bicy- manage their bicycle locker programs. cle lockers. In one part of the region, many people who used them worked at professional jobs in the technology sector. Assistance from other organizations has made it possible for some transit agencies to spend relatively little staff time Several agencies that have collected data about bicycle in managing their bicycle parking services. Even the larger parking have noted trends over time. COTA found that the use agencies reported devoting less than one-quarter of a staff of bike parking has remained constant since 1995. TriMet has member's time to managing bicycle parking. documented a steady 87% occupancy rate for bicycle lock- ers since 2002. King County Metro found that the percentage High-Capacity Bicycle Parking Facilities of lockers that were being rented increased from approxi- mately 25% in 2001 to 82% in late 2004. CTA found that Chicago Transit Authority--Chicago, Illinois indoor bike parking at transit stations increased by 44% between 2001 and 2002. High-capacity parking facilities were scheduled for construction at four CTA heavy rail stations in 2005 (see Figures 31 and 32). The Chicago DOT is using $675,000 of CMAQ Improvement Program funds to Many agencies experience times when the demand for design and construct the facilities. Each storage rack will be fit into bicycle parking exceeds the number of spaces available. the limited existing space at the transit station, providing secure, Some indoor bike parking facilities at CTA stations are filled weather-protected bicycle parking. A kiosk with bicycling information will also be provided near each parking area. to capacity on a daily basis. Seven King County Metro Tran- sit stations have waiting lists for bike lockers. Seventeen of the 26 TriMet light rail station locations with reserved bike lockers are at capacity and have waiting lists. REACTIONS TO SERVICE FROM DIFFERENT GROUPS Transit agencies report that bicyclists are very positive about bicycle parking at transit stops and stations. Reactions from transit operators, transit agency staff, regular transit riders, and the general public tend to be either neutral or positive. Only one agency expressed disappointment that their bicycle racks were being underutilized. (a) COSTS Typical inverted U-shaped bike racks cost approximately $150 to $200 per rack (each rack has space for two bikes). Bike lockers can cost between $500 and $2,500 apiece, depending on the model and quantity purchased. By com- parison, the cost to construct automobile parking can range from $3,500 to $12,000 per space for surface parking (2628) and between $10,000 and $31,000 per space for structured parking (2631). The annual cost of operating and maintaining automobile parking can range from $100 to $700 per space (26,27,29). These costs depend on factors (b) such as real estate prices, the total square footage, number of spaces for the parking lots and garages, and the number of FIGURE 31 Before (a) and after (b) views of proposed high- levels above and below ground. capacity bicycle facility at Midway Station in Chicago.