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38 Initially, RTD purchased 200 lockers for a bike parking demon- stration project at a cost of $500 to $600 per locker. These lockers required assembly and had several maintenance and security short- comings. The outsides of the lockers were made of plastic laminate, which tended to deteriorate over time. The lockers also had shared walls, which consisted of foam core or fiber board. These materials were easy to damage and could be broken to vandalize bicycles stored in adjacent lockers. RTD now uses higher-quality bicycle lock- ers that cost approximately $1,000 each. They come as one piece (no assembly required) with no external or internal frame, no seams or joints on tops or side walls, and are made of nonflammable, durable plastic composite material. As such, there are no shared walls between units. RTD offers two types of locker use agreements: lease lockers and first-come, first-served lockers. For both types of use, bicyclists are required to fill out a form with basic personal information and pur- chase an RTD padlock ($20) (see Figure 34). Leased lockers are more difficult to vandalize and use inappropriately because each locker is assigned to a single individual. However, these lockers are not used at all times by their lease holders, so the capacity is not used as efficiently as possible. First-come, first-served lockers allow any- one to use a locker if they obtain an RTD lock. However, RTD has had problems with vandalism and illegal storage of personal posses- sions and trash in first-come, first-served lockers, because they are left open (unsecured) when not in use. Security concerns since the March 2004 Madrid train bombings have also affected RTD's bicycle locker program. Public receptacles are not allowed within 250 ft of train platforms; therefore, first-come, first-served lockers must be clear of this area. Alternative locker designs have been considered to overcome security concerns about FIGURE 34 Regional Transportation District padlock. lockers located close to train platforms, such as those made of per- forated metal and those with security windows. However, these designs allow potential thieves to see the bicycles that are being stored. As a result, bicyclists with more expensive bicycles do not like MAINTENANCE to use this type of locker. King County Metro Transit makes sure the locks on bicycle RTD is considering electronic locks to address several first-come, first-served issues. An electronic lock system would allow bicyclists to lockers are working at least once per year. They also ask access any locker that is available on a first-come, first-served basis, renters to report immediately any lock problems to the Bicy- while keeping the locker unit secure even when not in use. In addition, cle Alliance, which manages the bicycle locker program. If a the electronic lock system could make it possible for RTD to track the frequency and length of use of lockers. This would help the agency problem occurs, the agency has an annual contract with a lock determine where more lockers were needed. Information from the company for lock replacement and repair, and the transit electronic lock system could also help the agency identify people who agency's maintenance crew is also available to assist if needed. leave a bicycle in the locker for longer than the maximum-allowed length of time and could help reveal locker-use behavior that could indicate a security threat. Various types of access "keys" are available: Most agencies reported minimal maintenance costs for physical (metal) keys with an electronic I.D., swipe cards or proximity bike parking facilities. However, if an agency has problems cards (like a credit card), and key pads. with racks or lockers becoming damaged, this can result in higher maintenance costs. One agency recommended that high-quality racks and lockers be purchased up-front to help reduce the cost of maintenance in the long run. One agency that was responsible for maintaining bicycle lockers was frus- trated with cleaning the insides of the lockers, removing graf- fiti, and keeping the lockers in general working condition. STAFFED BICYCLE PARKING (BIKE STATIONS) Staffed bicycle parking facilities provide another innovative method of integrating bicycles with transit, and in supporting bicycle transportation in general. The concept for staffed bicycle parking originated in Europe and Japan, and is a com- prehensive approach to providing everything the bicyclist needs in one location. A typical staffed bicycle parking facil- FIGURE 33 Bicycle locker located at light rail stations, park- ity can include secure indoor bike parking, a repair shop, bike and-rides, and transit hubs throughout the Denver region. sales and rentals, car sharing services, changing rooms, route