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6 American transit agencies that responded to a survey for this report started some of their bicycle services after 1994. Of the 121 total bicycle services cited by the participating agen- cies, 91 (75%) were established after 1994. This synthesis update will reflect additional knowledge that transit agencies have gained in the past 10 years about integrating bicycles and transit. Additional issues related to bicycle and transit integration need more detailed exploration. Some of these issues were raised as research needs in the 1994 synthesis report, and the others were suggested by the TCRP topic panel for this report. This synthesis addresses the following research issues: Design and development of bicycle equipment and inter- modal facilities; FIGURE 1 Bike-on-bus service. (Source: Central Ohio Transit Cost and funding for bicycle services; Agency.) Bicycle parking and access to transit; Bicycle policies and related standards; Marketing programs and their effectiveness; also addressed the safety of bicyclists on light rapid transit Training and education programs for users, operators, (12). Bicycle parking has been researched in MiamiDade and staff; County, Florida (13); Berkeley, California (14); Ottawa, Usage patterns and user demographics; Toronto, Calgary, and Vancouver, Canada (15); the Nether- Methods used to evaluate and monitor bicycle and tran- lands (16); and in other general assessments of bicycle and sit services; and transit integration (12), guidebooks of bicycle improvement Safety and security. strategies (17), and studies of factors that can increase the use of both transit and bicycles (18). PURPOSE Although these studies have evaluated individual pro- The purpose of this synthesis is to share information about grams, few have taken a comprehensive view and presented a how bicycles are integrated with public transportation by detailed analysis of the wide variety of bicycle and transit inte- many different types of transit agencies in the United States gration services available in North America. One text includes and Canada. As the number of bicycle services offered by a chapter on bicycle integration with park-and-ride facili- transit agencies has increased, agencies have gained more ties, metropolitan rail, intercity bus, intercity rail, ferry, and experience and made improvements to their bicycle and tran- air travel systems (19). The FTA has developed a brochure sit integration programs. The experiences that are docu- describing how communities have established bicycletransit mented in this synthesis can help transit agencies improve partnerships (20). This brochure also explains funding that can their existing bicycle services and assist other communities be used to improve bicycle and transit integration. with developing new bicycle and transit services. Two websites currently provide information on bicycles This synthesis is targeted to the following groups: and transit in North American transit agencies. Spindler and Boyle present a map of many of the transit agencies in the Transit agencies; United States that allow bikes on transit, pictures of many State, regional, and local transportation policymakers; types of bicycle and transit integration, and a table of the Elected officials; average number of monthly bicycle boardings and other sta- Bicycle and transit planners; and tistics for 83 transit agencies on Bikemap.com (21). Loutzen- Bicycle and transit advocates. heiser provides a summary of bicycle-on-rail policies for U.S. transit systems on the Massachusetts Bicycle Coalition website (22). APPROACH AND ORGANIZATION Synthesis Process Reasons for Updating TCRP Synthesis of Transit Practice 4 The primary source of information for this synthesis was an on-line survey of transit agencies in the United States and In the decade since the publication of TCRP Synthesis of Canada that currently offer or are considering providing Transit Practice 4 there has been significant growth in bicy- bicycle services. Potential survey participants were sug- cle and transit services. Forty-five (80%) of the 56 North gested by members of the Association of Pedestrian and

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7 Bicycle Professionals, identified by members of the project Characteristics of Transit Agencies Providing team, and selected from a list of agencies in the National Information for This Report Transit Database. An e-mail link to the online survey was sent to 118 potential participants in November 2004 asking them to Fifty-six transit agencies from throughout North America complete the survey. responded to the online survey and provided input for this report. The agencies were located in 18 states and 4 provinces Follow-up telephone interviews were done with 14 agen- (see Figure 2). The survey respondents represent a wide cies to gather additional information about one or more of range of agency sizes and offer a variety of types of bicycle their bicycle services. This detailed information was used to services (see Table 1). Responding agencies have service develop the brief case studies featured in this report. areas ranging from 6 to 3,746 square miles and serve between 140,000 and 440,000,000 annual unlinked trips. Bicycle on An effort was made to invite as many transit agency con- local bus and bike parking at transit stops and stations were tacts as possible to participate in the survey. The project team the most common services offered by the participating tran- reviewed the initial contact list to make sure that agencies of sit agencies; however, each of the 11 types of bicycle ser- all sizes and from different regions of the United States and vices listed in the survey (including bike on paratransit/taxi, Canada were invited to participate. However, a random sam- bike on vanpool, and staffed bicycle parking) were offered ple of agencies was not used, so it is not known whether par- by at least 3 responding agencies). ticipating agencies were more or less likely to have favorable opinions about bicycle services than agencies that were not invited to participate or chose not to respond. Still, the infor- Organization of Report mation provided by the participating agencies was useful for generating the main concepts and providing specific exam- This report is organized into seven chapters. Following this ples throughout this synthesis. introductory chapter, chapter two provides a summary of exist- FIGURE 2 Locations of transit agencies participating in the bicycle and transit survey.

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TABLE 1 TRANSIT AGENCIES PARTICIPATING IN THE BICYCLE AND TRANSIT INTEGRATION SURVEY 8

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TABLE 1 (Continued ) 9

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10 ing bicycle and transit programs. It includes a brief description Chapter five--bicycle on other types of transit, such as of the most common bicycle services currently offered by vanpools and ferries. transit agencies in North America and addresses issues that Chapter six--bicycle parking. are common to many types of bicycle and transit integration, such as marketing, policies and standards, and monitoring Each of these four chapters include detailed descriptions of performance. the bicycle services and addresses issues such as cost, levels of use, maintenance, rules and restrictions, safety and secu- The next four chapters address the main types of bicycle rity, training and education, and customer satisfaction. Inno- and transit integration. vative aspects of each bicycle service are also discussed. Case studies are used to illustrate key issues in each chapter. Chapter three--bicycle-on-bus services. Chapter seven is a summary of findings and suggestions Chapter four--bicycle-on-rail services. for further research.