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12 CHAPTER 5 TECHNIQUE DESCRIPTIONS AND GUIDELINES HIERARCHICAL LIST OF TECHNIQUES 1. Category 2. Design Status The research team examined and revised the list of 3. Also Known As techniques over the duration of the project. Although some 4. Description techniques were combined, guidelines were developed for 5. Purpose 44 discrete techniques. 6. Planning A hierarchical system was adopted to classify the uni- a. Useful for Erosion Processes: verse of techniques. Hydraulic countermeasures are sepa- b. Spatial Application: rated into two major groups, namely, (1) River Training and c. Hydrologic/Geomorphic Setting: (2) Bank Armor and Protection. Two more categories were d. Conditions Where Practice Applies: added, namely, (3) Riparian and Stream Opportunities and e. Complexity: (4) Slope Stabilization. A hierarchical list and classification f. Design Guidelines/Typical Drawings: of environmentally sensitive channel- and bank-protection 7. Environmental Considerations/Benefits techniques is shown in Table 1. The list places each tech- 8. Hydraulic Loading nique in one of the preceding major groups and further clas- 9. Combination Opportunities sifies or identifies each technique by categories and subcat- 10. Advantages egories. This classification system was developed largely to 11. Limitations assist in the selection of appropriate treatments. 12. Materials and Equipment The three-level rating system was developed to account for 13. Construction/Installation the amount, quality, and reliability of available information: 14. Cost Level I--Well-established, well-documented (good per- 15. Maintenance/Monitoring formance and monitoring data available), reliable design 16. Common Reasons/Circumstances for Failure criteria based on lab/field studies. 17. Case Studies and Examples Level II--Intermediate, greater uncertainty (used fre- 18. Research Opportunities quently but do not have the level of detail, quality of infor- 19. References mation, and reliability that characterize Level I); little or inadequate monitoring. SPECIAL TOPICS Level III--Emerging, promising technique. Does not have the track record and level of information characterizing The following subjects of relevance to environmentally Level I or II. sensitive streambank and channel protection are briefly dis- cussed in special topic documents composed by the research team and included on the accompanying CD: TECHNIQUE GUIDELINES 1. Bankfull Discharge 2. Bio-Adaptive Plant Response Technique design guidelines and specifications are pre- 3. Checklist/Guidelines for Effective Design sented in a web browser-based interactive format on the 4. Combining Techniques accompanying CD. The software is liberally illustrated with 5. Designing Stone Structures color photographs of real projects. Clicking on a photograph 6. Ecological Aspects of Bridge Design will expand it so that details can be seen. The CD is user 7. Geotextiles and Root Penetration friendly, with expandable and collapsible menus, hotlinks 8. Harvesting/Handling of Woody Cuttings between technique pages and special topics where relevant, 9. Management of Conveyance and links to many references in .pdf format. 10. Optimal Compaction and Other Strategies All technique guidelines can be found on the attached CD. 11. Physical Aquatic Habitat Each technique guideline includes the following items: 12. Proper Functioning Condition

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13 TABLE 1 Final list of technique guidelines Category Technique Level River Training Spur dikes I Vanes I Transverse Structures Bendway weirs I Large woody debris structures II Stone weirs II Longitudinal stone toe I Longitudinal stone toe with spurs I Coconut fiber rolls II Longitudinal Vegetated gabion basket I Structures Live cribwalls II Vegetated mechanically stabilized earth I Live siltation II Live brushlayering I Channel Planform Vegetated floodways II Measures Meander restoration II Bank Armor and Protection Vegetation alone II Live staking I Willow posts and poles II Groundcovers Live fascines I Turf reinforcement mats II Erosion control blankets II Geocellular containment systems II Rootwad revetments II Live brush mattress I Vegetated articulated concrete blocks I Vegetated riprap I Revetments Soil and grass covered riprap II Vegetated gabion mattress II Cobble or gravel armors II Trench fill revetment II Riparian and Stream Opportunities Top-of-Bank Treatments Live gully repair III Vanes with J-hooks I In-Stream Habitat Cross vanes I Improvements Boulder clusters II Newbury rock riffles II Slope Stabilization Diversion dike II Slope drain II Live pole drain III Drainage Measures Chimney drain II Trench drain II Drop inlet II Fascines with subsurface drain II Bank Regrading Slope Flattening II In-Situ Reinforcement Stone-fill trenches II 13. Resistive (Continuous) vs. Redirective (Discontinuous) 16. Sources, Species, and Durability of Large Wood 14. Revetments to Resist Wave Wash 17. The Key to Stability is the Key 15. Self-Launching Stone/Well Graded Stone 18. The Role of Geotextiles and Natural Fabrics