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6 CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW AND EVALUATION GENERAL EVALUATION SPECIFIC REVIEW A surprisingly large number of books, guidance manuals, Books technical reports, journal articles, and conference or work- shop proceedings have been published on environmentally The Use of Vegetation in Civil Engineering Practice. sensitive slope-protection and erosion-control measures. 1990. Written by N. J. Coppin and I. Richards. Describes the Many of these references are devoted in full or in part to tech- use and engineering function of vegetation in a number of niques that are applicable to streambank and channel protec- engineering applications, including erosion control and bank tion. The main limitation of the existing technical literature protection. The first book to set out in a comprehensive man- is not so much its paucity as its abundance. In some cases, ner the ways in which vegetation modifies physical soil prop- regional specificity and lack of ready availability constrain erties and the functional role that vegetation plays in slope usefulness. Many articles appear in obscure publications of stabilization, water erosion control, watercourse and shore- line protection, wind erosion control, and control of runoff in limited distribution and accessibility. Perhaps most impor- small catchments. Published by Butterworths: Sevenoaks, tant, the quality of design guidance varies widely. Some tech- Kent (UK). niques are documented by anecdotal case studies with very Water Bioengineering Techniques for Watercourse Bank little data and only a few photographs, while other techniques and Shoreline Protection. 1994. Written by H. M. Schiechtl have been subjected to controlled testing in hydraulic labo- and R. Stern. A comprehensive compendium of countermea- ratories. Similarly, detailed analytical design approaches sures and design guidelines. Includes chapters on water bio- have been developed for some techniques, but others con- engineering systems (including longitudinal and transverse tinue to be designed by rules of thumb or individual judg- structures) and on selection, care, and maintenance of vege- ment. As noted below in the section describing DOT survey tation along waterways. Published by Blackwell Science, results, qualitative information is often more abundant than London. quantitative data. Biotechnical and Soil Bioengineering Slope Stabilization. Some important examples of the technical literature on 1996. Written by D. H. Gray and R. B. Sotir. Descriptions environmentally sensitive channel- and bank-protection and guidelines of biostabilization measures. Includes a chap- measures are listed and discussed briefly below. This ter on selection and design of biotechnical channel lining sys- resource base has been augmented more recently by techni- tems. Published by John Wiley and Sons, New York. cal notes and related publications that are now available on Waterway Bank Protection: A Guide to Erosion Assess- the World Wide Web. The review that follows is not intended ment and Management. 1999. Written by R. P. C. Morgan, to be exhaustive, but it is illustrative of key information A. J. Collins, and M. J. Hann. This is an encyclopedic look sources that are for the most part readily available. The at bank-protection measures and contains a logical selection review is limited to books, guidance manuals or handbooks, algorithm. A bibliography (in MS Access or Excel) is agency technical reports, and websites. included on diskette. Its main short-coming is that the entire Readers should be aware that "gray literature" (reports, work is targeted at conditions found in Great Britain. A copy websites, technical notes, proceedings papers, brochures and can usually be obtained via interlibrary loan at a university other documents not subjected to independent peer review) library. Published by R& D Publication 11, The Stationary is usually of lower quality than peer reviewed journal papers. Office, Rio House, Waterside Drive, Aztec West, Almonds- A complete list of all documents, including technical jour- bury, Bristol, BS32 4UD, U. K. (pp105) nal papers, used in preparing the technique guidelines and special topics is included in the comprehensive bibliography. Agency Guidance Manuals and Handbooks The accompanying CD also includes this list of documents, under References, and has the added feature of providing Streambank Protection Guidelines for Landowners and links to .pdf files containing the full text of many of the Local Governments. 1983. Written by M. P. Keown. Envi- documents. ronmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways

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7 Experiment Station. Succinct review of the nature and causes Integrated Streambank Protection Guidelines. 2003. of streambank erosion and failure; essential elements of a Issued by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. plan of action; stream-rerouting, channel modification, and Provides advice for selecting and designing protection tech- bank-protection measures. Available from NTIS, U.S. niques that protect or restore aquatic and riparian habitats. Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA. #ADA193023. Advocates integration of natural river processes in the selec- Stream Habitat Improvement Handbook. 1992. Issued by tion and design process. Maintains that bank-protection the USDA Forest Service, Tech Publ. R8-TP 16. Primarily a measures should be selected to address site- and reach-based compendium of in-stream structure designs to correct or conditions to avoid habitat impacts. Suggests consideration improve habitat deficiencies. of methods other than riprap armoring, such as roughening "Streambank and Shoreline Protection." 1996. Chapter 16 of a bank line, directing flow away from an eroding bank, the Engineering Field Handbook, U.S. Department of Agricul- revegetation, floodplain management, maintaining riparian ture. The companion chapter to Chapter 18: Soil Bioengineer- corridors, restoring oxbows/wetlands, relocating at-risk ing for Upland Slope Protection. This chapter describes the use infrastructures, and managing meander belts. of vegetative plantings, soil bioengineering, and structural sys- tems used either alone or in combination with one another for protecting streambanks and shorelines. Guidelines and design Agency Technical Reports considerations are presented for the following treatments: (1) Streambank Erosion Control and Demonstration, Interim soil bioengineering measures: live staking, live fascines, fiber Report. 1981. Report issued by the U.S. Army Corps of Engi- rolls, branchpacking, vegetated geogrids, and brushmattress, neers. A massive, 8-volume report detailing the results of (2) vegetative/structural measures: tree revetments, willow numerous streambank-erosion control trials around the coun- post plantings, log/rootwad revetments, live crib walls, vege- try. Contains the results of both conventional and alternative tated riprap (joint planting), and vegetated gabion mattresses. treatments. Dated but rich source of information that repre- Bridge Scour and Stream Instability Countermeasures. sents the state of the art of streambank protection at the time 1997. Written by P. F. Lagasse et al. Issued by the U.S.DOT. of publication. HEC-23. Primarily a compendium of hydraulic techniques Bioengineering for Streambank Erosion Control: Report (namely, river training structures and armoring countermea- 1, Guidelines. 1997. Written by H. Allen and J. R. Leech. sures). Includes a useful matrix of countermeasures that can Technical Report EL-97-8. Issued by U.S. Army Engineer be adopted to evaluate their functional applications and suit- Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. ability for different river conditions. Design of Roadside Channels with Flexible Linings. 1998. Guidelines for Stream and Wetland Protection in Ken- Written by Y. H. Chen and G. K. Cotton. HEC-15/FHWA- tucky. 1997. Issued by the Kentucky Division of Water. 1P-87-7. Prepared for the Federal Highway Administration. Description of a variety of environmentally sensitive mea- Contains information on Manning coefficient and allowable sures for repairing streambank erosion and restoring aquatic tractive stress for a variety of lining systems, including riprap, habitat. A printed copy of this document can be ordered free, vegetation, and various rolled erosion control products. courtesy of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Determination of Resistance Due to Shrubs and Woody the Kentucky Division of Water. Contact: Kentucky Division Vegetation. 2000. Written by G. E. Freeman, W. H. Rahmeyer, of Water, 14 Reilly Road, Frankfort, KY, 40601. and R. R. Copeland. Technical report ERDC/CHL TR-00-25 Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and prepared for the Engineer Research and Development Center, Practices. 1998. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Results of flume studies Working Group. A comprehensive, cooperative effort by conducted to determine hydraulic resistance of flexible plants 15 federal agencies of the U.S. government to address that deform with turbulent flow. Study considered the effects stream degradation problems and outline possible solutions. on channel resistance for the variables of plant type, plant The August 2001 revision of the 1998 document is avail- geometry, plant density, plant flexibility, and submerged and able online at http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/stream_ partially submerged conditions. Regression equations were restoration/ (last accessed May 2, 2005). developed for determining the Manning roughness coefficient. Streambank Investigation and Stabilization Handbook. 1998. U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Cen- ter, Vicksburg, MS. Comprehensive compilation of research Websites and techniques for streambank/erosion control applications related to planning, engineering, contracting, construction, There are a number of websites that contain useful guide- and maintenance. Includes extensive collection of figures, lines and information about streambank-protection techniques, tables, and color photos. Provides technical design guide- including techniques that can be classified as environmentally lines for a variety of streambank-protection measures. Also sensitive channel- and streambank-protection measures. Most available in CD-ROM with browser-like navigation features of the sites have been posted by federal or state agencies. from Veri-Tech, Inc. at www.veritechinc.com. A number of sites that describe case studies or applications of

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8 such measures have been posted by private consultants. Some Guidelines for Stream and Wetland Protection. Depart- of the sites that have useful and relevant information are listed ment of Environmental Protection. Kentucky Division of and briefly reviewed below. Water. http://www.water.ky.gov/ (general website accessed EMRRP Technical Notes. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, November 17, 2004; however, due to technical issues, this Engineer Research and Development Center, Environmental manual was lost and they are working on putting it back on the Laboratory, web) http://el.erdc.usace.army.mil/emrrp/tnotes.html (last Provides an index to a 52-page manual that discusses accessed May 2, 2005) stream behavior, stream types, restoration of streams, A series of short illustrated notes on stream restoration that streambank erosion, riparian zones, and wetlands. Individual allows users to access, save, and print documents in Adobe pages from the guide can be downloaded as PDF Acrobat Acrobat (PDF) format. A thumbnail summary at the begin- files. The guide includes 59 photographs to help illustrate the ning of each note provides information on relative cost, main points of discussion. Seven appendices include complexity, and benefit of each measure. The following tech- overviews of hydro-geomorphic wetland functions, sources nical notes are particularly relevant and useful: for obtaining native plants, a list of consultants, and a com- EMRRP-SR-01 Glossary of Stream Feb 2000 prehensive stream restoration bibliography. The information Restoration Terms provided is applicable across state lines. EMRRP-SR-04 Coir Geotextile Roll and Feb 2000 Wetland Plants for Stream Restoration Library. Greene County New York Streambank Erosion Soil and Water Conservation District, Stream Restoration Control Program. EMRRP-SR-06 Habitat Requirements Feb 2000 http://www.gcswcd.com/stream/library/ (last accessed for Freshwater Fishes November 17, 2004) EMRRP-SR-07 Resistance Due to May 2000 Site contains downloadable documents such as spread- Vegetation sheets, typical drawings, construction specifications and EMRRP-SR-08 Determining Drag Feb 2000 other tools for stream restoration managers. The stream Coefficients and Area restoration construction specifications have been used on dis- for Vegetation trict projects ranging in cost from $10K to $700K. The fol- EMRRP-SR-09 Reconnection of Floodplains May 2000 lowing documents with stream restoration and vegetative with Incised Channels specifications can be downloaded from the site: EMRRP-SR-11 Boulder Clusters Feb 2000 Stream Restoration Specifications (typical drawings have EMRRP-SR-12 Irrigation Systems for Feb 2000 not yet been added): Establishing Vegetation EMRRP-SR-13 Streambank Enhancements May 2000 with Large Woody Debris SR-01: Rock vanes EMRRP-SR-21 Rootwad Composites for May 2000 SR-02: W-weirs Streambank Control and Fish SR-03: Cross vanes Habitat Improvement SR-04: Root-wads EMRRP-SR-23 Brush Mattresses for May 2000 SR-05: (Reserved) Streambank Erosion SR-06: (Reserved) Control SR-07: Stream channel excavation EMRRP-SR-24 Design Recommendations Apr 2000 SR-08: Rock riprap for Riparian Corridors and Vegetated Buffer Strips Vegetation Specifications (addresses implementation of EMRRP-SR-28 Units and Conversions for May 2001 vegetative components of stream restoration): Stream Restoration Projects EMRRP-SR-29 Stability Thresholds for May 2001 VS-01: Live fascines Stream Restoration VS-02: Sod mats Materials VS-03: Live stakes/posts EMRRP-SR-31 Live and Inert Fascine May 2001 VS-04: Live materials/transplants Streambank Erosion Control VS-05: Seeding and mulching EMRRP-SR-32 Impacts of Stabilization May 2001 Measures Environmental Management Program. Texas Trans- EMRRP-SR-33 Plant Material Selection May 2001 portation Institute. Texas A&M University System. College and Acquisition Station, TX.

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9 http://tti.tamu.edu/enviro_mgmt/projects (last accessed NebGuide. Cooperative Extension, Institute of Agriculture November 17, 2004) and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE. Describes several environmentally oriented research proj- http://www.ianr.unl.edu/pubs/soil/g1307.htm (last accessed ects, including one entitled, "Regional Applications for November 17, 2004) Biotechnical Methods of Streambank Protection in Texas," The NebGuide describes bioengineering techniques for which involved identifying bioengineering and biotechnical hillslope-, streambank-, and lakeshore erosion control. Tips streambank stabilization technologies appropriate to the cli- for a successful bioengineering installation and demonstra- matic and resource regions of Texas. tion project are described. Soil Bioengineering Home. Washington State DOT. The Cross Vane, W-Weir and J-Hook Structures. Engineering and Environmental Programs. Roadside and D.L. Rosgen. Wildland Hydrology Inc., Pagosa Springs, CO. Site Development. Olympia, WA. http://www.wildlandhydrology.com/assets/cross-vane.pdf http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/eesc/design/roadside/sb.htm (last accessed November 17, 2004) (last accessed November 17, 2004) The descriptions, design specifications, placement loca- Not oriented to streambank protection per se, but website tions, spacing and various applications of Cross-Vane, has many useful features, including case histories of soil bio- W-Weir and J-Hook Vane structures are presented. Empiri- engineering projects with photos, several hundred references cal relations for minimum rock size based on bankfull shear for soil bioengineering and vegetative stabilization, links to stress are presented. Drawings for each structure are pro- on-line publications and restoration websites, and design vided that display appropriate use of footers (foundation information including typical drawings, specification exam- rocks), cross-section shape, profile shape, appropriate chan- ples, and cost examples. nel locations, angles, slopes, spacings, and elevations.