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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 544 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Environmentally Sensitive Channel- and Bank-Protection Measures

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 2005 (Membership as of October 2005) OFFICERS Chair: John R. Njord, Executive Director, Utah DOT Vice Chair: Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS MICHAEL W. BEHRENS, Executive Director, Texas DOT ALLEN D. BIEHLER, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Vice President, Customer Service, Norfolk Southern Corporation and Subsidiaries, Atlanta, GA ANNE P. CANBY, President, Surface Transportation Policy Project, Washington, DC JOHN L. CRAIG, Director, Nebraska Department of Roads DOUGLAS G. DUNCAN, President and CEO, FedEx Freight, Memphis, TN NICHOLAS J. GARBER, Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville ANGELA GITTENS, Vice President, Airport Business Services, HNTB Corporation, Miami, FL GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, Director, Metrans Transportation Center, and Professor, School of Policy, Planning, and Development, USC, Los Angeles BERNARD S. GROSECLOSE, JR., President and CEO, South Carolina State Ports Authority SUSAN HANSON, Landry University Professor of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University JAMES R. HERTWIG, President, CSX Intermodal, Jacksonville, FL GLORIA JEAN JEFF, Director, Michigan DOT ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley HERBERT S. LEVINSON, Principal, Herbert S. Levinson Transportation Consultant, New Haven, CT SUE MCNEIL, Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark MICHAEL R. MORRIS, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments CAROL A. MURRAY, Commissioner, New Hampshire DOT MICHAEL S. TOWNES, President and CEO, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin LINDA S. WATSON, Executive Director, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority MARION C. BLAKEY, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) JOSEPH H. BOARDMAN, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA (ex officio) GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, Chancellor, Polytechnic University, and Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering (ex officio) J. RICHARD CAPKA, Acting Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) THOMAS H. COLLINS (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard (ex officio) JENNIFER L. DORN, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) JAMES J. EBERHARDT, Chief Scientist, Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies, U.S. Department of Energy (ex officio) JACQUELINE GLASSMAN, Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads (ex officio) JOHN C. HORSLEY, Exec. Dir., American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (ex officio) JOHN E. JAMIAN, Acting Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S. DOT (ex officio) EDWARD JOHNSON, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (ex officio) ASHOK G. KAVEESHWAR, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) BRIGHAM MCCOWN, Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association (ex officio) SUZANNE RUDZINSKI, Director, Transportation and Regional Programs, U.S. EPA (ex officio) ANNETTE M. SANDBERG, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) JEFFREY N. SHANE, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S.DOT (ex officio) CARL A. STROCK (Maj. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ex officio) NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Transportation Research Board Executive Committee Subcommittee for NCHRP JOHN R. NJORD, Utah DOT (Chair) MICHAEL D. MEYER, Georgia Institute of Technology J. RICHARD CAPKA, Federal Highway Administration ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR., Transportation Research Board JOHN C. HORSLEY, American Association of State Highway MICHAEL S. TOWNES, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA and Transportation Officials C. MICHAEL WALTON, University of Texas, Austin

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 544 Environmentally Sensitive Channel- and Bank-Protection Measures JOHN MCCULLAH AND DONALD GRAY Salix Applied Earthcare Redding, CA S UBJECT A REAS Energy and Environment Bridges, Other Structures, Hydraulics and Hydrology Soils, Geology, and Foundations Research Sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in Cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2005 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH NCHRP REPORT 544 PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 24-19 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISSN 0077-5614 interest and can best be studied by highway departments ISBN 0-309-08836-4 individually or in cooperation with their state universities and Library of Congress Control Number 2005932288 others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to 2005 Transportation Research Board highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Price $30.00 In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States NOTICE Department of Transportation. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the was requested by the Association to administer the research approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and reflects the Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely importance and appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee National Research Council. structure from which authorities on any highway transportation The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review subject may be drawn; it possesses avenues of communications and this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due cooperation with federal, state and local governmental agencies, consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the Council is an insurance of objectivity; it maintains a full-time research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National matters to bring the findings of research directly to those who are in Research Council, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation a position to use them. Officials, or the Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. The program is developed on the basis of research needs Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee identified by chief administrators of the highway and transportation according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research departments and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research areas of research needs to be included in the program are proposed Council. to the National Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. Published reports of the The needs for highway research are many, and the National NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of are available from: mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or Transportation Research Board duplicate other highway research programs. Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: Note: The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and the individual http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore states participating in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is a division of the National Research Council, which serves the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Board's mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. In an objective and interdisciplinary setting, the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy by researchers and practitioners; stimulates research and offers research management services that promote technical excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Board's varied activities annually engage more than 5,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 544 ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Manager, NCHRP TIMOTHY G. HESS, Senior Program Officer EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications BETH HATCH, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 24-19 PANEL Field of Soils and Geology--Area of Mechanics and Foundations JAMES A. RACIN, California DOT (Chair) LARRY A. ARNESON, FHWA, Lakewood, CA JOHN F. CROWLEY, University of Georgia, Athens WILLIAM FLETCHER, Oregon DOT WENDI GOLDSMITH, The Bioengineering Group, Salem, MA MIKE VIAR, Virginia DOT KRISTY VYVERBERG, California Department of Fish and Game MATTHEW WITECKI, Washington State DOT J. STERLING JONES, FHWA Liaison G. P. JAYAPRAKASH, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Proj- Pacific-Andrea Lucas Associates; and Michael Wiley, Associate ect 24-19 by Salix Applied Earthcare. Professor of Natural Resources at the University of Michigan. John McCullah of Salix Applied Earthcare was the Principal Others who contributed to reviews of various sections of this Investigator, and Dr. Donald Gray, Professor Emeritus of Univer- publication include David Derrick, of the U.S. Army Engineer sity of Michigan, was the Co-Principal Investigator. Dr. F. Douglas Waterways Experiment Station, and Phil Balch, of the Watershed Shields, Consulting Hydraulic Engineer, developed the Greenbank Institute. Decision Support Tool and authored many of the techniques while Other Salix Applied Earthcare staff who contributed significantly providing valuable reviews for many others. Also on the research to this publication include: Daria Hoyer, Laurie Barnes, Traci Mon- team were Grace Hsuan, Associate Professor of Civil and Archi- trose, Aaron Rose, and Kaila Dettman. tectural Engineering at Drexel University; Andrea Lucas of Sites

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This report presents a description of useful environmentally sensitive channel- and FOREWORD bank-protection measures, design guidelines for their application, and a selection sys- By Timothy G. Hess tem for determining the most appropriate channel- and bank-protection measure. This Staff Officer report will be particularly useful to professionals responsible for design and construc- Transportation Research tion of channel- and bank-protection measures in environmentally sensitive areas. Board Environmentally sensitive channel- and bank-protection measures--such as bio- engineering, root wads, large woody debris, riparian vegetation, bendway weirs, and energy dissipaters--are being called for more frequently to protect transportation facil- ities from erosion, scour, and lateral migration. However, relatively little guidance has been developed to help practitioners apply environmentally sensitive channel- and bank-protection measures with confidence that their designs are adequate. Traditional channel- and bank-protection techniques rely on countermeasures such as riprap, gabions, cable-tied blocks, or grout-filled bags, which may not offer sufficient in- stream functions, such as habitat diversity, fish passage, water quality, and energy dis- sipation. The use of more environmentally sensitive measures for the protection of channels and stream banks has been hampered by the lack of selection criteria and design guidelines. Under NCHRP Project 24-19, Salix Applied Earthcare developed selection crite- ria, design guidelines, and a compilation of techniques used for environmentally sen- sitive channel- and bank-protection measures. After conducting an extensive literature review and evaluation of commonly used environmentally sensitive techniques, the research team identified 44 environmentally sensitive channel- and bank-protection techniques for study. The channel- and bank-protection techniques were grouped into four major categories, namely (1) River Training Techniques, (2) Bank Armor and Pro- tection, (3) Riparian Buffer and River Corridor Treatments, and (4) Slope Stabilization. Technique descriptions and guidelines for their applications were developed. Finally, a rule-based technique selection system was also developed. The selection system is presented as an interactive software program entitled "Greenbank," which can be found on the accompanying CD-ROM (CRP-CD-58).

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CONTENTS 1 CHAPTER 1 Introduction Changing Requirements, 1 Project Tasks, 2 4 CHAPTER 2 Tasks Task 1--Literature Review and Agency Survey, 4 Task 2--Formulation of Work Plan, 4 Task 3--Interim Report, 4 Task 4--Execution of Approved Work Plan, 4 Task 5--Preparation of Supporting Tools, 5 Task 6--Final Report, 5 6 CHAPTER 3 Literature Review and Evaluation General Evaluation, 6 Specific Review, 6 10 CHAPTER 4 State DOT and Agency Survey Survey Design, 10 Survey Response and Findings, 10 12 CHAPTER 5 Technique Descriptions and Guidelines Hierarchical List of Techniques, 12 Technique Guidelines, 12 Special Topics, 12 14 CHAPTER 6 Technique Selection System Selection Strategy and Approach, 14 Greenbank Decision Support Tool, 14 16 BIBLIOGRAPHY 29 APPENDIX A Descriptive List of Channel- and Bank-Protection Techniques 41 APPENDIX B Greenbank Decision Support Tool User's Guide