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7 The concept of using total or partial access control as a QUESTIONNAIRE DEVELOPMENT means to limit access to a roadway is a critical component of a successful access management program within an agency The questionnaire was divided into three basic sections: or, at a minimum, developed in coordination with an access (1) acquisition of access rights, (2) management of access management program. This can help to ensure that the acqui- rights, and (3) disposal of access rights. The questionnaire is sition of access is consistent with the overall access manage- included in Appendix A. ment objectives. In the event that an access management policy or program does not exist in an agency, careful Acquisition of Access Rights thought should be given to decisions on where access rights are purchased to ensure that the purchase meets the long-term In this section, the questions were crafted to determine if agen- objectives for the agency, other affected agencies, and the cies acquired complete control of access along non-Interstate users of the roadway system. highways, eliminating all existing and future intersections and driveways, or if they elected to acquire partial control of access SYNTHESIS OBJECTIVE on those roadways, allowing certain intersections and drive- ways to remain in place. Questions 1b and 2b relate to decisions This synthesis (1) documents successful practices in acquir- on how access rights are acquired and were compared with ing property rights for managing highway safety and mobil- Questions 22b and 23b to determine if an agency has the same ity and (2) reviews current policies, legal and real estate guidance when they dispose of access rights. It was also impor- literature, and other publications that address this subject. In tant to determine who within the state agency provided the addition, a nationwide survey was conducted to identify authority to acquire access rights and the enabling statute or issues and practices as well as lessons learned and informa- rules that allowed them to do so. The questionnaire addresses tion gaps. Specific objectives of the synthesis included: valuation and potential payment; however, as this varies greatly across the United States, the topic was not explored in depth. Summarizing the access rights acquisition, manage- ment, and disposal practices of each state; Question 6 relates to the Interstate Highway System and Providing case examples of state programs; and was included to determine how successful agencies had been Identifying issues in current practice and lessons in implementing complete access control as a means to pre- learned. vent access to a roadway once rights had been acquired. The responses provide a comparison of the success rate of pre- venting access to the Interstate highways as compared with METHODOLOGY other transportation facilities where only partial access con- trol was acquired. The synthesis was developed through a comprehensive survey of state agencies, a review of published literature, and follow-up interviews with specific individuals to explore the Management of Access Rights practices in the acquisition, management, and disposal of access rights. The questionnaire was not intended to focus on The second section quantifies the level of effort that agencies the Interstate freeways, toll roads, turnpikes, or other major commit to the management of access rights as a resource. roads that are normally fully access controlled. Instead, it Questions 7 and 8 were designed to discover if agencies used was developed to document how and when agencies the authority of police power or other means to limit the num- purchase access rights along other roadways. In the event ber of driveways. This section indicates that agencies are that access rights are acquired, the survey documented how required to allow a property owner a driveway whenever and the access rights are managed within the agency. Finally, the wherever there is an opening in the access control line. survey determined if access rights are ever disposed of and, if so, the process that allows these rights to be transferred If a driveway is not allowed at an opening in the partial back to the abutting property. access control line, the questionnaire sought to determine under what criteria an agency could deny an application and Overall, 36 sets of responses to the questionnaire were if denied, whether or not the agency must compensate the received, which included 32 states and 1 city. Several states property owner. If compensation is owed, the questionnaire sent more than one response. Appendix B provides a list of sought to establish how the value is generated. responding agencies. In addition, survey respondents were asked to provide copies of applicable statutes, rules, and poli- Because the ownership of access rights is truly a resource, cies relating to the acquisition, management, and disposal of the questionnaire sought to determine how an agency man- access rights. These materials supplemented the material col- ages this resource and the amount of communication and lected as part of the literature review process. Finally, inter- coordination that is required among staff. The questionnaire views were conducted to provide specific case studies that also attempted to learn if the coordination is top down only demonstrate the issues facing practitioners today. or requires all staff to communicate regardless of hierarchy