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8 within the agency. This is also meant to establish if the acqui- Many different terms are used among the various sur- sition and management of the access right is housed in the veyed transportation agencies. Therefore, for the purpose of same department as the staff who ultimately have authority this synthesis, the following definitions were used: to permit driveways at these locations. If not, then the ques- tionnaire attempted to discover the communication link to Access rights--legal ability of a property owner to ensure that decisions are made appropriately. Other ques- access (or not access) an adjacent roadway. tions relate to management procedures that agencies use to Crossroads at interchanges--roadway that crosses over store, maintain, and retrieve information on access rights. or under a freeway or arterial that is connected by ramps and is secondary to the main highway. The crossroad Question 19 addresses multimodal considerations and may be under the jurisdiction of another agency. was specifically included because it is widely accepted that Disposal of access--sale or release of property rights. pedestrians and cyclists cannot breach an access control line (The terminology used in the questionnaire referred to on an Interstate highway without specific and significant both disposal and relinquishment of access. During the approval processes. The question sought to learn if agencies process of developing the synthesis, it was determined allow pedestrians and cyclists to cross those areas where they that the word relinquishment conveyed a different mean- have acquired partial access control along roadways and, if ing than was intended. Therefore, relinquishment has so, the process that allows this activity to occur. been omitted throughout the remainder of the document.) Eminent domain--legal power that allows a public Questions 20 and 21 were constructed to determine if a pur- agency to take property for public use provided an chased access right remains the property of the agency when owner is compensated for his/her loss (6). the highway is realigned or the right-of-way is modified. Full control of access--preference is given to through traffic by providing access connections by means of ramps with only selected public roads and by prohibiting Disposal of Access Rights all crossings at-grade and direct private driveway con- nections. Generally, full access control is accomplished In this section, questions were developed to determine if by legally acquiring the access rights from the abutting agencies have established a process for the disposal of access property owners (usually at the time of purchase of the and the processes that enabled that to happen. The term "dis- right-of-way) or by the use of frontage roads (6). posal" used throughout this synthesis means the sale or Interstate freeways--Divided highways with all access release of property rights. In addition, Questions 22c and 23c limited to grade-separated interchanges. These high- attempted to determine where the authority lies within the ways are part of the Interstate Highway System. agency to determine when access rights may be disposed of Non-Interstate freeways--divided highways with all and if there is a division of authority between the purchase access limited to grade-separated interchanges. These and disposal of property. Questions were also asked about highways are not part of the Interstate Highway System. how an agency determines a value for an access right when Nonfreeways and arterials--frontage roads, express- it is being disposed. Questions 22e and 23e were included to ways, and divided and undivided roadways, usually determine if the property owner was successful in achieving with at-grade intersections. Although other roadway an opening in the access control line, would they be guaran- connections and driveways are not always preferred, teed a driveway at that specific location and would they still they may be allowed to access these facilities. (Note: be required to go through the permit process. Finally, the These are referred to as non-Interstate highways and questionnaire asked about those circumstances when an arterials in the appendices.) entire road whose access rights had been previously acquired Partial control of access--preference is given to is transferred to another agency. The questionnaire sought to through traffic to a degree. Access connections, which establish who owns the right of access after the transfer of the may be at-grade or grade-separated, are provided with roadway is complete. These questions were meant to deter- selected public roads and private driveways. Access on mine if agencies had given long-term thought to what might expressways is usually limited to public road intersec- happen if highways with partial access control become func- tions. Generally, partial access control is accomplished tionally obsolescent to the point where the agency no longer by legally obtaining the access rights from the abutting has any need to manage the access to the roadway. property owners (usually at the time of purchase of the right-of-way) or by the use of frontage roads (6). DEFINITIONS Police power--authority of the government agency that owns or manages the roadway to regulate or restrict Both partial access control and complete access control are individual actions for the protection of health, safety, acquired on various types of facilities including freeways, and general welfare of the public, including restrictions highways, arterials, and crossroads at interchanges as on access for adjacent property owners and the require- depicted in Figure 1. This synthesis focuses on the acquisi- ment that any and all persons seeking a driveway to the tion, management, and disposal of partial access control. roadway go through an approval or permitting process.