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TRANSIT TCRPREPORT 108 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration Car-Sharing: Where and How It Succeeds

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TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 2005 (Membership as of October 2005) SELECTION COMMITTEE (as of September 2005) OFFICERS CHAIR Chair: John R. Njord, Executive Director, Utah DOT DAVID A. LEE Vice Chair: Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Connecticut Transit Georgia Institute of Technology Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS ANN AUGUST Santee Wateree Regional Transportation MEMBERS Authority MICHAEL W. BEHRENS, Executive Director, Texas DOT LINDA J. BOHLINGER ALLEN D. BIEHLER, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT HNTB Corp. ROBERT I. BROWNSTEIN LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT PB Consult, Inc. DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Vice Pres., Customer Service, Norfolk Southern Corporation and Subsidiaries, PETER CANNITO Atlanta, GA Metropolitan Transit Authority--Metro North ANNE P. CANBY, President, Surface Transportation Policy Project, Washington, DC Railroad JOHN L. CRAIG, Director, Nebraska Department of Roads GREGORY COOK DOUGLAS G. DUNCAN, President and CEO, FedEx Freight, Memphis, TN Ann Arbor Transportation Authority NICHOLAS J. GARBER, Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville JENNIFER L. DORN ANGELA GITTENS, Vice President, Airport Business Services, HNTB Corporation, Miami, FL FTA NATHANIEL P. FORD GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, Director, Metrans Transportation Center, and Professor, School of Policy, Metropolitan Atlanta RTA Planning, and Development, USC, Los Angeles RONALD L. FREELAND BERNARD S. GROSECLOSE, JR., President and CEO, South Carolina State Ports Authority Parsons Transportation Group SUSAN HANSON, Landry University Professor of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University FRED M. GILLIAM JAMES R. HERTWIG, President, CSX Intermodal, Jacksonville, FL Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority GLORIA JEAN JEFF, Director, Michigan DOT KIM R. GREEN ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley GFI GENFARE JILL A. HOUGH HERBERT S. LEVINSON, Principal, Herbert S. Levinson Transportation Consultant, New Haven, CT North Dakota State University SUE MCNEIL, Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, JOHN INGLISH Newark Utah Transit Authority MICHAEL R. MORRIS, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments JEANNE W. KRIEG CAROL A. MURRAY, Commissioner, New Hampshire DOT Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority MICHAEL S. TOWNES, President and CEO, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA CELIA G. KUPERSMITH C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Golden Gate Bridge, Highway LINDA S. WATSON, Executive Director, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority and Transportation District PAUL J. LARROUSSE National Transit Institute EX OFFICIO MEMBERS CLARENCE W. MARSELLA MARION C. BLAKEY, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT Denver Regional Transportation District JOSEPH H. BOARDMAN, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT FAYE L. M. MOORE Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Authority GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, Chancellor, Polytechnic University, and Foreign Secretary, National Academy MICHAEL H. MULHERN of Engineering Jacobs Civil Inc. J. RICHARD CAPKA, Acting Administrator, Federal Highway Administrator, U.S.DOT STEPHANIE L. PINSON THOMAS H. COLLINS (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard Gilbert Tweed Associates, Inc. JENNIFER L. DORN, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT ROBERT H. PRINCE, JR. JAMES J. EBERHARDT, Chief Scientist, Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies, DMJM+Harris JEFFREY M. ROSENBERG U.S. Department of Energy Amalgamated Transit Union JACQUELINE GLASSMAN, Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT MICHAEL SCANLON EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads San Mateo County Transit District JOHN C. HORSLEY, Exec. Dir., American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials BEVERLY A. SCOTT JOHN E. JAMIAN, Acting Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Sacramento Regional Transit District EDWARD JOHNSON, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration KATHRYN D. WATERS ASHOK G. KAVEESHWAR, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Dallas Area Rapid Transit BRIGHAM MCCOWN, Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT FRANK WILSON Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association County SUZANNE RUDZINSKI, Director, Transportation and Regional Programs, U.S.EPA ANNETTE M. SANDBERG, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT EX OFFICIO MEMBERS JEFFREY N. SHANE, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S.DOT WILLIAM W. MILLAR CARL A. STROCK (Maj. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps APTA of Engineers ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR. TRB JOHN C. HORSLEY TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM AASHTO Transportation Research Board Executive Committee Subcommittee for TCRP J. RICHARD CAPKA FHWA JOHN R. NJORD, Utah DOT (Chair) JENNIFER L. DORN, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR MICHAEL D. MEYER, Georgia Institute of Technology LOUIS SANDERS WILLIAM W. MILLAR, American Public Transportation Association APTA ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR., Transportation Research Board SECRETARY MICHAEL S. TOWNES, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA ROBERT J. REILLY C. MICHAEL WALTON, University of Texas, Austin TRB LINDA S. WATSON, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 108 Car-Sharing: Where and How It Succeeds ADAM MILLARD-BALL GAIL MURRAY JESSICA TER SCHURE CHRISTINE FOX Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates San Francisco, CA and JON BURKHARDT Westat Rockville, MD S UBJECT A REAS Planning and Administration Public Transit Research Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in Cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2005 www.TRB.org

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 108 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, Project B-26 environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public ISSN 1073-4872 transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need ISBN 0-309-08838-0 of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, Library of Congress Control Number 2005933942 and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is 2005 Transportation Research Board necessary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into Price $41.00 the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration--now the Federal Transit Admin- istration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation NOTICE Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative for local, problem-solving research. TCRP, modeled after the Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the longstanding and successful National Cooperative Highway approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such Research Program, undertakes research and other technical activities approval reflects the Governing Board's judgment that the project concerned is in response to the needs of transit service providers. The scope of appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including plan- Research Council. ning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation that performed the research, and while they have been accepted as appropriate Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum by the technical panel, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by Research Board, the National Research Council, the Transit Development the three cooperating organizations: FTA, The National Academies, Corporation, or the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Department of acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and Transportation. the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel educational and research organization established by APTA. according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Research Council. Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Special Notice Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare The Transportation Research Board of The National Academies, the National project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and Research Council, the Transit Development Corporation, and the Federal Transit provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the Administration (sponsor of the Transit Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein project. The process for developing research problem statements and solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing project reporting. cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activ- ities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail Published reports of the to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminating TCRP results to the intended end users of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM research: transit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB are available from: provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA Transportation Research Board Business Office will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other 500 Fifth Street, NW activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural Washington, DC 20001 transit industry practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can and can be ordered through the Internet at cooperatively address common operational problems. The TCRP http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is a division of the National Research Council, which serves the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Board's mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. In an objective and interdisciplinary setting, the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy by researchers and practitioners; stimulates research and offers research management services that promote technical excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Board's varied activities annually engage more than 5,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 108 ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, TCRP Manager DIANNE S. SCHWAGER, Senior Program Officer EILEEN P. DELANEY, Managing Editor NATALIE BARNES, Editor PROJECT PANEL B-26 Field of Service Configuration LORA B. BYALA, Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, Washington, DC (Chair) MARK CHASE, Zipcar, Cambridge, MA CHARLES C. EUCHNER, New Haven, CT FRANZ GIMMLER, Arlington, VA LUANN HAMILTON, Chicago DOT, Chicago, IL JANE LAPPIN, U.S.DOT, Cambridge, MA WILLIAM T. ROACH, King County Metro Transit, Seattle, WA TIM VOGEL, Flexcar, Washington, DC CONRAD WAGNER, WAGNER, Switzerland WILLIAM B. MENCZER, FTA Liaison CHRISTOPHER V. FORINASH, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Liaison PETER SHAW, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under TCRP Proj- Fox at Nelson\Nygaard, while Nina Creedman at Nelson\Nygaard ect B-26 by Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates and Westat. provided research support. The online surveys were administered Nelson\Nygaard was the contractor for this study. The work under- by Karen Burkhardt. taken at Westat was under a subcontract with Nelson\Nygaard. The work would not have been possible without the considerable Adam Millard-Ball, Principal, Nelson\Nygaard, was the principal support received from many car-sharing operators. They encour- investigator. Gail Murray, Principal Associate, Nelson\Nygaard, was aged their members and partners to complete the on-line surveys, the co-principal investigator. The other primary authors of the provided contact details for partner interviews, participated in the report were Jon Burkhardt, Senior Study Director, Westat, and Jes- Operator's Workshop, and reviewed research drafts. Thanks also go sica ter Schure, Associate Project Manager, Nelson\Nygaard. The to the participating partners, car-sharing members, the TCRP B-26 GIS analysis and geographic market analysis were led by Christine panel, and many others who are too numerous to mention.

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TCRP Report 108: Car-Sharing: Where and How It Succeeds will be of interest to FOREWORD individuals, organizations, and communities who are interested in knowing more about By Dianne S. Schwager car-sharing and to those who may want to introduce car-sharing as a new mobility alter- Staff Officer native. The report is a substantive resource with considerable information and useful Transportation Research tools for the development and implementation of car-sharing services. Board Communities face increasing traffic and parking congestion as well as a need to improve air quality. One way to address these problems is to find alternatives to private automobile ownership. Car-sharing is an innovative mobility option that allows indi- viduals to pay for and use automobiles--on an as-needed basis--through membership programs. In recent years, a number of European and U.S. car-sharing organizations have experienced rapid growth in membership and geographical coverage. However, little research has been performed on the benefits and feasibility of car-sharing. The goal of TCRP Project B-26 was to provide guidance to assist transit agencies, government offi- cials, and other interested parties in developing successful car-sharing services in tran- sit and other settings. TCRP Report 108 presents the research team's findings on the Current and potential roles of car-sharing in enhancing mobility as part of the transportation system; Characteristics of car-sharing members and neighborhoods where car-sharing has been established; Environmental, economic, and social impacts of car-sharing; Ways in which partner organizations have tried to promote car-sharing; Barriers to car-sharing and ways to mitigate these barriers; and Procurement methods and evaluation techniques for achieving car-sharing goals. Appendices A through E of TCRP Report 108 are included with the report on CRP-CD-60. The appendices include an annotated bibliography; a list of partner orga- nizations surveyed and interviewed; survey instruments; and sample documents such as Requests for Proposals (RFPs) and zoning ordinances related to car-sharing. Appendix E was designed as a resource for introducing organizations to car-sharing and encour- aging partnerships to initiate car-sharing programs. The appendix includes five stand- alone documents directed to local governments, transit agencies, employers and busi- nesses, developers, and universities, respectively. Each document can be printed out in color and disseminated as an information resource and marketing tool on car-sharing. TCRP Report 108 and its appendices provide useful information and tools for those interested in initiating car-sharing programs.

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CONTENTS ES-1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1-1 CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1.1 Introduction, 1-1 1.2 Research Approach, 1-2 1.3 Report Structure, 1-3 References, 1-5 2-1 CHAPTER 2 State of the Practice 2.1 What is Car-Sharing?, 2-1 2.2 A Brief History, 2-5 2.3 Models of Car-Sharing, 2-9 2.4 Relationship to Other Modes, 2-15 2.5 Current Practice, 2-18 2.6 Market Development, 2-27 References, 2-32 3-1 CHAPTER 3 Market Analysis 3.1 Demographic Market Segments Attracted to Car-Sharing, 3-2 3.2 Geographic Markets, 3-26 3.3 Growth Potential, 3-41 References, 3-43 4-1 CHAPTER 4 Impacts of Car-Sharing 4.1 Introduction, 4-1 4.2 Vehicle Ownership, 4-4 4.3 Travel Behavior Changes and Related Impacts, 4-13 4.4 Transportation Costs, 4-31 4.5 A Proposed Standard Methodology, 4-33 4.6 Conclusions, 4-35 References, 4-36 5-1 CHAPTER 5 The Role of Partners 5.1 What are Partner Organizations?, 5-1 5.2 Which Organizations are Involved?, 5-2 5.3 Summary of Survey Results, 5-3 5.4 Contributions of Partner Organizations, 5-7 5.5 Local Government, 5-8 5.6 Transit Agencies, 5-29 5.7 Employers and Businesses, 5-38 5.8 Developers, 5-43 5.9 Universities, 5-48 5.10 Conclusion, 5-55 References, 5-55 6-1 CHAPTER 6 Factors for Success 6.1 Overcoming Barriers, 6-1 6.2 Factors for Success, 6-19 6.3 Conclusion, 6-27 References, 6-28 7-1 CHAPTER 7 Procurement and Monitoring 7.1 Introduction, 7-1 7.2 Procuring Car-Sharing, 7-1 7.3 Performance Measures and Evaluation, 7-8 7.4 Recommended Approach, 7-19 7.5 Conclusion, 7-20 References, 7-21 8-1 CHAPTER 8 Conclusion References, 8-15

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CRP-CD-60 APPENDIX A Car-Sharing Annotated Bibliography APPENDIX B Geographic Market Analysis APPENDIX C Data Collection Instruments APPENDIX D Sample Documents APPENDIX E Partner Profiles